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35 Cards in this Set

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Meno
Plato

attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning in this case virtue in general, rather than particular virtues (e.g., justice, temperance, etc.)

a virtue vs virtue
a circle vs shapes

WE WILL NEVER KNOW!
Meno characters and situation:
Meno says early on in the dialogue that he has held forth many times on the subject of virtue to Socrates

Menos slave: regarding the argument for innate knowledge

Anytus: Socrates suggests that Anytus does not realise what slander is
virtue ethics:
Aristotle:

how one is or is not a good human being

"Should I lie and hurt his feelings or don't and do?"
The Republic
Plato

define is "what is justice?"
FORM:
in Plato: that what makes something be what it is

'ness'
deontology:
immanual kant

what kind of action am I supposedd to perform?

am I following my duty moral obligation
consequentialism:
John stweart Mill

how do our actions affect others

utilitarianism: the best is the most pleasurable
relativism:
Ruth Benedict

(ethical) idea that culture defines reality
divine command theory:
Euthypro: 'insofar as it is impious' (Socrates)

idea that Gods will determains the content of morality
telos:
in Aristotles virtue ethics

'function' or 'goal'

teleological ethics: what is morally good is what brings somthing closer to its purpose
nedumia:
in virtue ethics: pleasure
eudaimonia:
in virtue ethics: 'living well' or 'flourishment'
character defined by virtue:
virtues are not extremes

they are character traits and not actions

do not always do what brings pleasure

habit is very important

actions only SHAPE virtue or character
aristotles mean:
desirable middle between two extremes
autonomy:
Immanual Kant

a persons ability to decide for themselves
categorical imperative:
what is morally right (act only so that the maxim of your action can become a nuiversal law)

humans are the only rational so they have a set of moral obligations
duty:
Kant

the necessity to act out of respect for the law

What am I supposed to be doing?
end:
end result? not a mean
hypathetical imperative:
if i want this then I should do this

using as a MEAN
good will
Kant

doing your duty
moral law and universibility:
Kant

is it ok for EVERYTHING to ho like this?

does not depend on what you want
consequentialism:
Mill

doesn't care about intentions, only actions

maximization of pleasure
utilitarianism:
what is good brings pleasure
Singer and 'personhood'
the possession of traits like the capacity to feel and reason, self-awareness and autonomy, and the ability to imagine a future
rationalism:
Rene Descartes

belief that reason is the source of knowledge
"Cogito, ergo sum"
"I think, therefore I am"
skeptism:
doubt between sense data and anything else
indubitabililty:
certainty, undoubtable

almost nothing in this world is impossible to doubt
Empiricism:
John locke; opposed rationalism

things are only measurable BECAUSE they came from our senses
John Locke:
all knowlegde comes from sense data

two kinds:
primary: things that make a sunstance be what it is

secondary: what we percieve
George Berkely:
only secondary qualities

to be is to be percieved ("Esse est percipi")
David Hume:
impressions: what you percieve; mental experience

ideas: copies of impressions; mental image

EMPIRISISM LEADS TO SKEPISISM
causality:
David Hume

no evidence for cause and effect, only constant connexion

the only way to prove constant connexion is if we know 'the future will resemble the past'
'force and vivacity':
distinguishes impressions from ideas
"custom or habit":
what hume says life is