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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hedonic calculus
The methods developed by Jeemy Bentham to measure the quantity of various pleasures and pain according to, for example, their intensity, duration, and certainty
Default opinions
According to John Searle these are the sorts of opinions (seemingly philosophical in nature) which everyone starts with and ends with after philosophizing
the melting pot
a somewhat dated metaphorical expression used originally by sociologists to describe a cultural dynamic where a dominant culture changed and was changed by other cultures entering its cultural sphere. The melting pot metaphor is sometimes contrasted with that of the "tossed salad" metaphor where cultures entering the sphere of a dominant culture retain their cultural identity ulike the loss of identity suggested by the melting pot metaphor
Correspondence theory of truth
the philosophical theory of truth, which argues that a statement is true if, and only if, it corresponds to or correctly reports some state of affairs or facts in reality
Descriptive function of language
When language is used to characterize or describe some factual state of affairs
Coherence theory of truth
The philosophical theory of truth which argues that a statement is true if, and only if, it "fits" or coheres within a consistent system or set of other statements
ordinarily understood as the conscious motivating factor behind some action
Scientific realism
The view that a true scientific theory is one that correctly describes an objective reality that exists independent of human consciousness
As used in this episode, judgements of values having to do with beauty as opposed to moral values
Pragmatic theory of truth
the philosophical view that a statement is true if it works or has predictive value in science and everyday life
the view that some standards or principles hold without regard to or on condition of culture, time, or personal preference
From the Greek allegoreuo, meaning literally saying something different from what's actually said.
in ethics, the view that morality of an action depends entirely on its consequences and not simply on the kind of action it is, the view that no actions are intrinsically immoral
the view that a true scientific theory is one that enables scientists to make accurate predictions
Expressive function of langauge
when language is used to express or evoke feelings or emotions. Expressions such as: Ouch, or Wow are often cited as clear examples of expressive language
a style of method and typically used to describe types of stories, plays, and films
In classical utilitarialism, the quantity of pleasure or satisfaction produced by an action, from which the quantity of pain or dissatisfaction can be subtracted.
Consensus theory
The view that scientific theories are true if they cohere with the accepted views of scientists. Sometimes called "conceptual relativism"
The doctrine that pleasure is the primary good that life has to offer
as used in this episode in referring to practices of the Catholic church, indulgences were sold by the church for the purpose of getting the souls of departed loved ones out of purgatory
According to some, simply the values we hold. According to others, a type of evaluation that is distinct from other types of values
in utilitarianism, the good or bad results produced by an action
principle of utility
The view that actions are morally right to the extent that they produce utility or beneficial consequences, and morally wrong to the extent that they impose costs or disutility, the morally right action being the one that produces the greatest net utility in comparison to the utility in comparison to the utility produced by all other possible courses of action
Interpersonal comparisons
the attempt to determine the extent to which the pleasure or pain felt by one person is greater or less than the pleasure or pain felt by another person
the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work characteristic of a community
ideal language
a language free of the ambiguity and vagueness of ordinary language.
preferences, expressions of good and bad, right and wrong, and the like
uniquely personal, such as your feelings or thoughts
the 18th century philosophical movement marked by rejection of traditional social, religous, and political authority, and an emphasis on using one's own reason
in the context of morality the view that moral standards or principles do not apply universally and are in some sense culturally, historically, or personally based
in the context of morality, the view that at least some moral standards or principles apply universally and thus are not culturally, historically, nor personally relative
Qualitative distinctions amongst pleasures
In classical utilitarialism, any differences among pleasures that make one pleasure count for more or less than another but which is not a mere difference of quantity
In philosophy, a school of thought which claims that the primary function of language is to express emotions or feelings
the branch of philosophy that deals with the interpretation of words and actions by providing correct rules for interpretation. Its original focus was upon the meaning of texts.
language game
as used by Wittgenstein, if is the practice or use that gives meaning to a word or expression