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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
branch of philosophy concerned with concepts like knowledge and rational justification
branch of philosophy concerned with specifying the basic kinds of things that exist: does God exist? do physical objects exist?
metaphysical naturalism
holds that there is no supernatural phenomenon; can't use it as an explanation
axiology (value theory)
axioms are assumptions/premisses
sequence of propositions of which 0 or more are premisses and one is the conclusion, in which the premisses are at least intended to support (give reason for accepting) the conclusion
deductive argument
if the premisses are true the conclusion must be true
an argument is deductively valid because of the logical form it has; a deductively valid argument is one in which the conclusion must be true if the premisses are true
a deductive argument that is valid with true premisses
begging the question
an argument begs the question when you wouldn't accept the premisses unless you already believed the conclusion
logical form
logical form of an argument is what makes it deductively valid or deductively invalid
an if/then statement
If P, then Q
if clause
then clause
If not Q, then not P
equivalent to conditional
In P then Q equals if Q then P
NOT the equivalent of the conditional
inductive argument
nondeductive argument in which characteristics of individuals not in a sample are inferred from the characteristics of individuals in a sample. The strength of an inductive inference is influenced by sample size and sample bias