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98 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the name of the group of text that have defined many philosophical ideas of Hinduism?
What main world religion has evolved gradually and has no religious book or word?
According to Hinduism, what is the foundation of all existence?
Brahman, or "ultimate reality"
According to Hindus, how did Brahman create the universe?
It was lonely so it divided itself into male and female and reacted sexually to create the universe.
Is Hinduism a monotheistic or polytheistic religion?
They consider themselves monotheistic because they believe everything is Brahman, but we think of them as polytheistic.
According to Hinduism, what is the name for the "ultimate self"?
Accoring to Hinduism, how does the atman operate in relation to the universe.
It operates as a part of an interrelated network of reality rather than individually.
What religion believes in a series of births and deaths and what is the name for this idea?
Hindusim; reincarnation
After death, according to Hinduism, what is the path that not as holy individuals follow?
They are cremated and sent up as smoke where they pass into night and up to the moon where they are turned to rain, fall to earth, become food, eaten by man, passed to women, and born again.
After death, according to Hinduism, what is the path that meditation masters follow?
The pass into smoke, into day, to the world of the gods, through the sun, and into the world of Brahman.
In Hinduism, how are those that live poorly punished?
In their next life the bad karma rebounds on them.
In the Hindu religion, what are all the gods part of?
Confucianism was most prominent in which classical civilization?
What is the most reliable source of Confucius's teachings?
The Lun Yu, translated into the Analects.
Which way of thinking was concerned more with human welfare than with ultimate nature and gods?
According to Confucius, what are the two main forces of the universe?
Ming- Destiny
T'ien Ming- the Decree of Heaven
According to Confucius, what is the difference between Destiny and the Decree of Heaven?
DOH is a way of acting morally and must be strived for, while desinty is the inevitable way things must happen and must just be accepted.
According to Confucius, what is the way of sages?
Tao- The Way
According to Confucius, what is a sage?
Ancient rulers of ideal times that acted with extreme benevolence. They are extremely rare but everyone has the potential to be one.
What are five reasons that Confucius believes make sages so rare?
1. Attachment to profit
2. Lake of respect for elders
3. Untrustworthiness
4. Ignorance of the past
5. Absence of benevolence
According to Confucius, what is the most important quality a human can possess?
Jen- Humaneness or benevolence
What was the major debate that arose after Confucius's death and who led each side?
Is human nature good or bad?
Mencius believed it was good, Hsun-Tzu believed it was bad.
After Confucius's death, who's work represented the orthodox Confucius tradition? What was the name of this work?
What person do all three monotheistic world religions trace back to?
What is the name of the god that the three world monotheistic religions believe in?
Christianity- God
Islam- Allah
Judaism- Adonai
Accordint to monotheistic religions, what is God's greatest creation?
What are the sacred texts for each monotheistic religion?
Christianity- Bible
Islam- Qu'ran
Judaism- Torah
According to monotheistic religions, how are we different from animals and what are we suppossed to do with this gift?
We are given rational thought, intellect, and freedom of choice, and are therefore expected to fulfill our obligation to God.
According to the monotheistic religions, based on whether or not you have lived a wise life, where are the two options for an afterlife?
Heaven and Hell
According to Judaism and Christianity, what quality of humans is above all else and free of intellect? What democratic view does this represent?
Human goodness
Equality of every individual
According to the Hebrew Scripture, what is the major flaw in all humans?
We are infected with sin.
According to the monotheistic religions, what are the three main impediments that corrupt the human soul?
According to the Hebrew scripture, what is the only way to repent for sins committed?
Ask forgiveness from God; salvation
According to Christianity, what two main concepts are men composed of?
Flesh and spirit
What is the idea of Christian salvation?
Jesus is the messiah of God and is here to help the world be a better place.
Who developed the first nontheological account of the origin of the solar system?
Immanuel Kant
Kant strove to combine what two ways of thinking?
Science and Religion
Did Kant believe in free will?
Yes, but he also believed everything in the physical world is determined by something else.
Did Kant approve of punishments and rewards?
No, he believed that by offering rewards and punishments one was violating human's free will.
According to Kant, what is the difference between humans and animals with regards to emotions and actions?
Both feel emotions, but only humans recognize that they are feeling the emotions. Likewise, with actions, animals don't have a concept of the reason for an action, while humans do.
According to Kant, what is "synthesis"?
Imagination, or taking of data from the senses to create illusionary events.
Is "synthesis" subconscious, conscious, or unconscious?
What are the three major cases of Kant?
1. Man has ability to recognize feelings and emotions.
2. Man creates goals.
3. Man is naturally bad or evil.
Describe hypothetical imperative according to Kant.
Men act to fulfill their desires.
Describe categorical imperative according to Kant.
Men may act based on what they morally ought to do instead of to fulfill their desires
According to Kant, what is the name for the relative balance between good and evil and what is it?
"Unsocial socialbility"
The need to be part of society while still being selfish and competitive.
According to Kant, how does man void of society act? What difference does society make on man?
Man void of society will act evil, while society allows man to make moral choices.
What is the chronlogical order of the three early western philosophers?
What was the period of time called when men questioned the church and turned to science for answers?
The Enlightenment
What is the title that Plato gave himself?
"The Philosopher-King"
According to Plato, what was the first step in solving individual and social problems?
Understanding the true nature of man
Who was Plato's mentor?
What are Plato's views on men vs. women?
Men are on average superior to women, though women have their own special place in society.
According to Plato, what were the four imperfect socities?
1. Timarchy- honor and fame are valued above reason and understanding; not enough knowledge
2. Oligarchy- Money and power go only to the upper class; too much appetite
3. Democracy- He believed the most knowledgable should rule, not the people.
4. Tyranny- One ruler fulfills his appetite and neglects the rest.
How many true forms does each object have according to Plato?
Where does Plato declare that we experience true forms?
In the spirit world.
What three elements make up the sould according to Plato? Which is the most important and must control the other two?
Reason- logical and conscious action
Appetite- the want for material things
Spirit- the reason for logical action
Reason is the most important.
What religion did Marx eventually become?
What two major philosphers was Marx influenced by?
Hegal and Feurbach
Who was Marx's particular companion?
Fredrich Engles
What was Marx's opinion of the Industrial Revolution?
He was against it because of the rise of filthy cities and child labor.
According to Marx, what is the most important feature of society?
Economic classes and their relation to each other.
What two forms of government did Marxism lead to?
Socialism, then Communism
What three types of theory did Marxism consist of?
What are the three main types of government and how do they function?
Capitalism- free enterprise; private owners own companies
Socialism- government owns businesses
Communism- workers own means of production
According to Freud, what is hysteria?
Hysteria- a state of irrational emotion.
What were the two hypothesis of Freud?
1. People could subconsciously suffer from past memories.
2. Problems were based on fantasies rather than the past (many cases involved a sexual origin).
What is the difference between life instincts and death instincts according to Freud?
Death Instincts- concepts that helped people die (aggression, self-destruction.
Life Instincts- concepts that helped people live (self-preservation, sexuality).
According to Freud, what are the three states of mind?
1. Conscious- People understand what they are thinking (wishes, thoughts, emotions).
2. Preconscious (subconscious)- state from which things can become readily conscious (memories of experiences that aren't remembered but can be recalled)
3. Unconscious- from which things cannot become conscious
According to Freud, what are the three divisions of a person?
1. Id- intstinctual drives, "pleasure principle", like a small child.
2. Ego- Conscious mental states, "Reality principle" Percieves world and decides how to act.
3. Superego- Contains moral norms developed from childhood.
Who was the first philospher that dealt with dreams?
Freud believed that dreams are either ___ or ____. What is the main function of dreams?
memory; fantasy
They are messges trying to get across to us.
According to Freud, what are the four pyschosexual stages?
1. Oral- babies are fixated with mouth pleasure.
2. Anal- Anal pleasure; potty training.
3. Phallic Stage/ Oedipus Complex- Both sexes are interested by male sexual organs, boys often develop a lust for their mother.
4. Latent- Sexuality is less obvious until puberty.
What theory to all of Lorenz's beliefs stem from?
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
According to Lorenz, what are all animal behaviors triggered by?
A drive.
According to Lorenz, what are the four major drives?
If fighting between predator and prey considered "aggresive" behavior by Lorenz?
No, only between animals of the same species.
What are the three reasons for aggresive behavior?
1. To spread out species to ensure adequate food.
2. To ensure the strongest leave the strongest offspring.
3. To establish and maintain a pecking order.
According to Lorenz, animals do not actually try to ____ members of their own species. To ensure this, aggresion often takes the form of _______.
kill; threats
How does Lorenz view the evolution of humans?
We are one species evolved from many.
According to Lorenz, intra-species aggresion explains what concepts of human life?
war, conflicts
According to Lorenze, the form of human aggression is normally ____ rather than ______.
communal; individual
According to Lorenz, why do groups often view other groups with aggresion?
Because our ancestors overcame natural dangers, so natural selection took the form of competition with other tribes.
Why is the biological reason for our physically weak state according to Lorenz, and therefore what use to display aggresion?
We are omnivores, therefore we need weapons.
What philospher believed that psychology should be about behavior rather than states of consciousness?
Why did Skinner prefer to focus on behavior?
He was very scientific, and observations on behavior provided him with concrete data.
What two main principles did Skinner base his philosophy?
1. Environment is more influencial than heredity, and the only inherited behavior is reflexes.
2. Behavior is learned through reinforcement and the conditioning of reflexes.
Skinner believed that only ______ could explain the world.
What were Skinner's beliefs about religion?
He didn't believe in religion, he believed it was a way divised to control the masses.
According to Skinner, who or what is responsible for a human's actions?
The environment, not man himself.
What was Skinner's main contribution to philosophy?
His belief that any action can be conditioned.
Did Sartre believe in destiny or religion?
No, he believed the universe was free and chaotic, there is no purpose beside that which man sets for himself.
Sartre believed that humans have the ulitmate ______
freedom or choice
What is Sartre's belief of human nature?
There is no human nature or destiny, you must choose who you want to be.
What state of mind did Sartre not believe in?
Unconscious- he believed everything you did you had to be thinking about in order to physically do it. You make the choice to do whatever you do.
According to Sartre, what is the consciousness of our freedom?
According to Sartre, what is the difference between good and bad faith?
Good Faith- sincerity
Bad Faith- trying to escape anguish by trying to change something other than a choice in life
Sartre says to live _______ which is ___ faith which is another form of ____ bad.
Authentically; Good; Bad