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69 Cards in this Set

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Pre-Hellenic Mythology
Eurynome, Ophion, and the Universal Egg
Greek Mythology
Prometheus and Pandora
Babylonian Mythology
Ishtar and Tammuz;
Glilgamesh and Enkidu
Eqyptian Mythology
Isis, Osiris, and Seth
Hebrew Mythology
Adam and Eve
Sophia
Definition of Philosophy
philia = love

sophia = wisdom
Definition of Pre-Socratics
Before Socrates
Philosphers By Century
Natural Philisophers
(6th Century BC)

Metaphysical Philisophers
(6th-5th century BC)

Moral Philosophers
(after Socrates-4th Century BC)
Natural Philosophers
1) Thales
2) Anaximander
3) Anaximenes
Thales
All is Water
Anaximander
All is Matter
Anaximenes
All is Air
Metaphysical Philosophers
1) Heraclitus
2) Paremenides
3) Empedocles
4) Anaxagoras
Heraclitus
All is flux. Strife causes all things to change into their opposites.
Parmenides
All is permanence. Nothing really changes. Change is an illusion.
Empedocles
There are four elements: earth (matter), air, fire, and water. Changes in the arrangement of these four elements are due to the opposing forces of love (order) and hate (disorder)
Anaxagoras
All things in the universe are the result of Nous (mind): an immaterial substance
Moral Philosophers
1) Zeno
2) Aristippus
3) Epicurus
Zeno
Developed the Philosopy of Stoicism. The Stoics advocated indifference to pleasure and pain and the subjugation of the passions by reason.
Aristippus
Developed the philisophy of Hedonism. The Hedonists regarded pleasure, especially physical pleasure, as the highest good.
Epicurus
Developed the philosophy of Epicureanism, a modified form of Hedonism. The Epicureans regarded happiness as the highest good. They valued intellectual and spiritual pleasure as well as physical pleasure.
Aphoristic
Short Passage of Wisdom that sticks in your mind
Didactic
A teaching of Ideas; Meant to educate
Hebrew Wisdom Books of the Bible
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Solomon (Song of Songs)
Wisdom
Sirach (Ecclesiastes)
Satan
Accuser: personification of evil
Job
Virtuous and Pious Man
Represents Human Suffering
Sophia
Personification of Wisdom
King Solomon
Archetype of the Wise Man
Shulamite Woman
Symbol for Israel as God's Bride
Book of Job
Dramatic Poem which explores the problem of evil
Song of Solomon
Nuptial poem that uses sensuous imagery of the Hebrew's pagan neighbors. Unlike pagan poems, the Hebrew poem uses its eroticism as an allegory for spiritual love.
Three Kinds of Love:
1. Eros
2. Philia
3. Agape
Eros
passion (sexual love)
Philia
friendship (Platonic love)
Agape
spiritual love (Christian love)
Sappho
a highly celebrated poet who lived in the sixth century BC on the island of Lesbos. Her poetry is characterized by lyricism, sensuality, and eroticism. Her subject matter was women's lives and her themes included love, desire, female beauty, marriage, motherhood, and of course, the goddess of love.
Phaedrus
A lover would be embarrassed if his beloved saw him doing anything cowardly. Therefore, love inspires men to courage and goodness.
Pausanias
A distinction must be made between common love, which is characterized by love of women, physical attraction, and lust, and heavenly love,which is characterized by love of boys, intellectual attraction, and lack of lust.
Eryximaches
Pausanias' theory can be applied to medicine: common love inspires unhealthy desires and heavenly love inspires healthy desires.
Aristophanes
Originally, humanity had three sexes: male-male beings, female female beings, and male-female beings. To weaken them, Zeus cut them in half. That is why they always long to reunite with their other halves.
Agathon
Love, like Eros, is young, beautiful, delicate, supple, just, virtuous,
courageous, and wise.
Socrates
Since men desire what they lack, rather than what they already have, Eros must not have all the fine qualities attributed to him by Agathon. However, that which is not beautiful is not necessarily ugly. There is an intermediate state. According to Diotima, Eros is the son of Poverty and Resource. Human love is the desire for immortality through sexual reproduction or intellectual creation (which is superior). On the ladder of love, a man progresses from love of physical beauty in an individual, to love of physical beauty in general, love of intellectual beauty, love of philosophy, and finally to love of the ultimate "Form" of beauty.
Alcibiades
Praises Socrates, his lover, instead of Eros. He compares Socrates to a satyr: physically ugly, but able to entrance others with beautiful words (his satyr's music). Thus Socrates has inner beauty. Moreover, Socrates would not let himself be seduced by Alcibiades' physical beauty because of his great self-control.
Aphrodite
born from the sea after Cronos (time) castrated his father Urnaus (the sky
Hephaestus (the smith)
Married to Aphrodite
Ares (war)
Lover of Aprhrodite
Eros (passion)
Son of Aphrodite and Ares.
Hermaphroditus
Son of Aphrodite and Hermes
Priapus
Son of Aphrodite and Dionysus
Euthyphro
The nature of piety and holiness. Socrates explains to Euthyphro that he is being charged with impiety. Euthyphro explains to Socrates that he is charging his own father with murder. Euthyphro's dilemma is whether piety demands that he prosecute his father as a good citizen should or refrain from taking" action against his father as a good son should. Socrates asks Euthyphro whether holiness is loved by the gods because it is holy or it is holy because it is loved by the gods. He concludes that the gods love it because it is holy. Thus does Socrates suggest that holiness exists irrespective of the gods.
The Socratic Method
Socrates professes ignorance on a subject and asks to be taught. Then he asks questions which gradually reveal his companion's lack of knowledge. His goal is not to win arguments, but to work together to discover truth.
Apology
Socrates defends himself against the charges of not
recognizing the Athenian gods, inventing new gods, and corrupting the youth.
Crito
Trys to persuade Socrates to escape from prison
Anti-Democratic Philosophy
All opinions are not of equal value. Some are good and some are bad. Only good opinions have value.
Moral Philosophy
a.) It is better to suffer injustice than to inflict it.
b) A good person cannot really be harmed by a bad person.
c) It is never right to act unjustly,
even in retaliation.
Pythagoras
A mystical philosopher and mathematician who lived during the sixth century BC. His ideas influenced a school of philosophy that was named after him as well as later philosophers such as Socrates.
Pythagoras' Ideas
1. All is number (The universe is governed by mathemathical laws.)
2. The music of the spheres
3. The transmigration of souls
4. Vegetarianism
5. Eternal recurrence
Phaedo
Socrates discusses death and the soul. At the end of the dialogue, he is executed by hemlock poisoning
Hypatia
(circa 370-415) was a philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who lived in Alexandria. She was a pagan and a teacher of Platonic philosophy. In an atmosphere of religious rivalry (paganism, Judaism, and Christianity) combined with the prejudice against women teachers, she was tortured and murdered by a Christian mob. Her death marks the unofficial end of Hellenism.
New Testament
Twenty-seven books that were composed in Greek in the first century. They included gospels, history (Acts), epistles, and
prophecy.
Books of the New Testament
Gospels, history (Acts), epistles, and
prophecy
Gospel
an account of the life and ministry of Jesus (literally, Good News)
Beatitude
declarations of blessedness
Apocalypse
a revelation of the future and/or the heavenly realm
Eschatology
teachings of final things (e. g. Judgment Day)
Parousia
the second coming of Christ
The Gospel of Matthew
This gospel contains the most complete biography of Jesus. This disciple was writing for a Jewish audience and frequently made use of Old Testament themes.
Book of Revelations
John's epistle to the seven churches of Asia Minor. It is a prophecy and apocalypse. The dominant motif is of sevens. It uses Old Testament imagery, but with new significance.
Cosmology
The Nature of the Universe