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17 Cards in this Set

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metaphysics
studies what sorts of things in general exist and and what sort of world this is
epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge-what is it and how do we know what we know?
ethics
studies evaluative questions- what is good/bad, what should one do in general
political philosophy
studies the source of political authority, the best overall structure for society and/or the state, and related questions. (Can be seen as a branch of ethics.)
aesthetics
studies the nature of art, beauty, and related questions
logic
studies reasoning, esp. the principles of correct reasoning. Closely related to, but not the same as, epistemology.
evidentialism
clifford
evidentialism
the view that it is morally wrong to hold unjustified beliefs
scientific integrity
feynman
confirmation bias
look for positive instances not counter
think about arguments for not against
remember evidence for
skepticism
we don't know many things we think we usually know
representationalism (indirect realism)
directly aware only of mental things called sense data
which represent external physical objects
reasonable to believe that it exists because it is the best explanation for the sense data
sense data
no two people can have the same
only exists when being perceived
vary depending on observer's condition
Argument from perspective
Russel
Russell
1. The objects that you see change depending on your perspective. (table example)
2. Physical objects do not change depending on your perspective.
3. Therefore, the objects that you see are not identical to the physical objects.
foundationalism
some beliefs require no reasons or evidence beyond themselves
other beliefs must be justified on the basis of foundational beliefs
phenomenal conservatism
huemer
if it seems like it is, that gives you some justification for believing it to be true