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20 Cards in this Set

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What were Russell's arguments for the value of philosophy?
Believe that it is valuable. Makes us more objective, improves the individual. Feeds our minds, gets science going, makes us one with the universe.
Valid/Invalid arguments
Valid - If the premises are rue, then the conclusion must be true. Invalid - stretched too far on the conclusion or used a false premise.
A Priori
Things that are true without having to experience them, prior to experience (math). Self Evident. Ex. triangles have three sides.
A posteriori
Knowledge after experiencing something (the stove is hot).
Ontological Argument
Uses A Priori to prove God's existence.
Anselm's ontological argument
P1: we can have a concept of God as the greatest thing that exists.
P2: It's greater to exist in reality than in the mind only (1 real dollar is better than a million imaginary dollars).
C: God exists in reality.
Objection to Anselm's ontological argument.
OBJECTIONS: (Gaunilo)
P1 : You can think of the perfect island.
P2: It's greater to exist than to not exist.
P3: The island can either exist solely in our minds, or in reality.
C: The perfect island exists.OBJECTIONS: (Gaunilo)
P1 : You can think of the perfect island.
P2: It's greater to exist than to not exist.
P3: The island can either exist solely in our minds, or in reality.
C: The perfect island exists.
Cosmological Argument
(Aquinas)
Prime mover argument, First Cause argument
Possibility and necessity
Prime Mover Argument
(Aquinas)
p1: Motion comes from other motion
p2: there had to be a start to that motion - an unmoved mover
c - god is the start/prime mover
First Cause Argument
(Aquinas)
P1: One thing is caused by another
P2: There must have been a first cause - an uncaused cause
God is that first cause
Possibility and Necessity Argument
(Aquinas)
Part of Cosmological argument
P1: We are possible:
P2: There must be a necessary entity to ensure our continued existence
C: God is that necessary entity
Teleological Argument
Same as the Design Argument
Design Argument
P1: Universe/world is organized,beautuful, and purposeful.
P2: There had to be a designer to make things organized (couldn't happen by accident)
C: God is that designer
Objections and responses to design argument
1. We make babies (paley brought that up - kind of a straw man approach)
R - even more impressive god designed something that could reproduce itself.
2. Useless, imperfect parts
R - judge the things that are working well, it still had to be designed too.
3. Imperfections
R - Not imperfect design but imperfect materials
Paley -
Watch argument - basically the same as the design argument.
Argument from Gradation
If there is a good and a better, there must be a best.
God is the best.
Objection - the best is relative
Cumulative Selection
Dawkins
Cannot explain the complexity of the world with single step selection. We have a perfectly good explanation for the complexity of the world. We don't need to add God to the picture (following ocaam's razor - idea of God makes it more complicated.)
Single Step Selection
Everything randomly just appeared the way it is, instead of small changes little by little.
Darwin's theory of evolution
Natural Selection
Dawkins argument against God
Natural Selection
Sieves - lets through what fits. selects in a natural way.
Cumulative Selection