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26 Cards in this Set

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What is the "Big Question"?
How did our universe come to exist such that it permits the development of life?
What are the (7) possible answers to the "Big Question"?
Theism, Anthropic Principle, Many-World Hypothesis, Nothing-Special-About-Life Position, Sheer-Luck Hypothesis, Logical Neccessity Hypothesis, Axiarchic Hypothesis
What is Theism?
The belief that the laws of nature were designed by an intelligent being to permit the development of life.
What is the Anthopic Principle?
The fact that the laws of nature permit the development of life needs no explanation, since we wouldn't be here to ask for an explanation if they did not permit the development of life.
What is the Many-Worlds Hypothesis?
There are many worlds or universes, it is not surprising that at least one of these worlds or universes permits the development of life.
What is the Sheer-Luck Hypothesis?
It is a brute fact that the laws of nature are as they are. Life is special, but it is only a lucky coincidence that the laws that happen to hold, permit the development of intelligent life.
What is the Logical Necessity Hypothesis?
The laws of nature could not have been different than they are. They are logically necessary. Happily (not luckily), they permit the development of intelligent life.
What is the Axiarchic Hypothesis?
Axiarchy means "rule by value" the laws of nature are such as they are because it is good that it is desirable _per se_ (without the agency of a desirer), that they are such .. desirability per se has causal efficacy.
What is Reductive Physicalism?
The idea that human persons are wholly physical. The mind is simply the brain. There are mental events, such as thoughts, pains, and feelings, but mental events are simply brain events. They are purely material.
What is Eliminative Physicalism?
The belief that human persons are wholly physical. There is no such thing as the mind, and there are no such things as thoughts, pains, feelings, or other mental events. Mental events may be compared to phlogiston or the luminiferous ether: they are elements of a discredited theory. Folk psychology is unscientific and should be replaced by neuropsychology.
What is Cartesian Dualism?
The belief that the mind of a human person is an immaterial object that is intimately connected to a material object, a human body. The person _has_ a body, but _is_ a mind. The mind and the body interact: changes in either can cause changes in the other.
What is Property Dualism?
The idea that human persons have no nonphysical components. Their minds are simply their brains. But persons (and perhaps their brains) have nonphysical as well as physical _properties_. Mental properties (such as the property of having a certain concious experience at a certain time) are nonphysical properties; they are _emergent_ properties.
What are Emergent Properties?
Emergent Properties are properties of a composite object that differ in kind from, and cannot be explained in term of, the properties of the _components_ of that object.
What is Type-Type (Reductive) Physicalism?
For every _type_ of mental event, there is a _type_ of physical event with which it is numerically identical.
What is Token-Token (Reductive) Physicalism?
For every _individual_ mental event, there is an _individual_ physical event with which it is numerically identical. Different tokens of the same type of mental event, can be identical with tokens of different types of physical events.
What are the (5) arguments for dualism?
Decartes Argument, The Privacy Argument, The Location Argument, The Martians Argument, The Argument from the Objectivity of Personal Identity?
What is Descartes Argument for Dualism?
Since I am know by me to exist, and my body is not, I am not my body.
What is The Privacy Argument for Dualism?
Since thoughts, sensations and other mental events can be directly observed only by the person who has them, whereas brain events can, in principle, be observed by others, mental events are not brain events.
What is The Location Argument for Dualism?
Since some mental events, such as phantom pain, are located outside the body, the cannot be bodily events (even if they are the _effects_ of bodily events)
What is The Martians Argument for Dualism?
Since martians might experience pain despite lacking c-fibers, we cannot be correct to say that pain "is" the "firing of c-fibers".
What is the Argument from the Objectivity of Personal Identity, for Dualism?
If persons were purely physical, the relation of identity across time would sometimes be as indeterminate for persons as it sometimes seem to be for other purely physical objects. In order for there to be an objectively correct (even if unknown) answer in information exchange cases (which there seemingly ought to be), the identity of a person would have to be borne by an immaterial simple, such as a mind or a soul.
What are the (4) Arguments for Physicalism?
The Interaction Argument, The Argument from Common Speech, The Remote-Control Argument, The Duplication Argument.
What is the Interaction Argument for Physicalism?
The Interaction Argument for Physicalism is that the mind and body interact, which would be incomprehensible if the mind were nonphysical.
What is the Argument from Common Speech, for Physicalism?
The Argument from Common Speech, for Physicalism, is that we attribute to persons such physical properties as height and weight. Evidently we consider person to be bodies, not minds.
What is the Remote-Control Argument for Physicalism?
The Remote-Control Argument for Physicalism is that if I am a mind, and if my body is merely a possession or an instrument, then damage to my body ought not to result in damage to my mind. But it does.
What is the Duplication Argument for Physicalism?
The Duplication Argument for Physicalism is that when we are not on our philosophical guard, most of us would assume that the physical duplicate of a person (produced by a three-dimensional duplicator) would be a living, concious person. That assumption seems to reflect a tacit acceptance of Physicalism.