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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
true knowledge
episteme
epistemological relativism
the view that objective, absolute knowledge cannot be had by us and that, at best, who is right and who is wrong is relative to beliefs, persuasion, and so on, rather than being determined solely by the criterion of objective truth---sophists
Protagoras
argued that everything is true in that truth is relative to the perceptive world of each individual mind
epistemological nihilists
nothing exists- there is nothing to be known-Gorgias
your eyes are not windows
Protagoras's view: our perceptions consist of mental phenomena, they are not a direct apprehension of objective reality but constructions by the mind relative to the observer.
logos
the universal formula of change structuring not only the cosmos and all things in it but also the operations of the human mind---Heraclitus
according to Kolak, the purpose of philosophy
making room for what to the unenlightened mind will seem like utterly perplexing contradictions-learning how little we know
plato-idealist or materialist
idealist
rationalism
the two metaphysical systems, idealism and materialism both held this principle: they tried to encompass the entire scope of the scientific and philosophical knowledge of the time---Democritus used rationalism, trying to find a ratio amidst all of the philosophical views
what is the underlying principle of reason according to Heraclitus?
logos
Heraclitus's meaning of logos
reasoning principles guiding the being of the world:
nature and mind were inextricably linked by the same principles-human mind and the cosmos linked by the same laws, guided by the same principles, affected by the same causes
self-deceived/self-deception
when the mind does not know how little it knows and lives self-deceived, safely in the prison of its own ignorance- thinking the sun moves, believing it, unaware that what is thought to be true may not be
What has Kolak discovered about Thales that is important?
He showed people how to think for themselves - they had trusted his authority and what he said was obviously false, thus causing them to question his statement: to be wise you cannot simply be a follower of truth, you must yourself become a seeker of truth.
Democritus
rationalist, which means he believed theory should be based on reason: believed everything was made of something and that something was atoms
parmenides's view
reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, necessary, and unchanging. in the world of appearances, one's sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false and deceitful