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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Empericism
belief that knowledge comes from experience
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from the particular to the general
Evidence
something given
Conclusion
final statement/answer

solution
argument
premise(s) + conclusion

one or more premises intended to support a conclusion
strong inductive argument
premises give strong evidence
weak inductive argument
premises do not give strong evidence
good inductive argument
strong inductive argument with true premises
deductively valid
possible that the premises be true but conclusion is false
deductively sound
all premises are true
conclusive
good enough to justify believing the conclusion
disconfirming
evidence that a statement is false
subsidary information
a belief that something is true or false
population
general group of things relevant to a particular question
individuals
things which make up a population
property
charecteristics in question
sample
limited number of individuals
representative sample
sample likely to have close to the same proportion of the property of the population
secondary properties
properties other than the one in question
primary property
one started being interested in
sample matching
trying to end up with a sample that has a similar distribution to population as a whole
randomly selected sample
all individuals in population have equal chance of being selected for sample
self selection
selected themselves
sampling with replacement
take sample out and put it back
sampling without replacement
leaving selected out
sample size
how much in sample
observed frequency
??? percentage to decimals ???
margin of error
range of possibilities around frequency
confidence level
probability of truth of a claim
one standard deviation
67% level of confidence
two standard deviation
twice as large as one standard deviation

95% level of confidence
three standard deviation
three times as large as one standard deviation

99% level of confidence
correlations
comparison
positive correlation
greater than
negative correlation
smaller than
no correlation
equal to
statistically significant
data in sample justifies a conclusion about possible correlation in population
explanation
??
nomological
having to do with general laws of nature
factual conditions
facts that make the laws apply
factual conditions recent
became true recently
factual conditions standing
have been true longer
hypothesis
conjectures that might account for some fact
entertaining
considering it without necessarily believing it
reasoning to the best explanation
procedure to stop when only one hypothesis which is explandum and plausible enough to merit consideration
theories
highly debatable belief or wild guess
anomalous data
observations that seem incosistent with theory
crucial experiment
one that can turn out only in 2 ways

1 theory right/1 theory wrong
theoretical entities
believing in the claim of something
theoretical entity realism
hold that they do
theoretical entity anti-realism
hold that they dont