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42 Cards in this Set

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Who were the first western philosophers?
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers
What did the presocratic philosophers search for?
the source and substanced of all things
What were the presocratic philosophers known as?
Metaphysicians or natural philosophers
What was the object of study of the presocratic philosophers?
Nature and the cosmos. External reality was their focus rather than subjective internal reality.
Where did the presocratic philosophers claim that all the answers could be found?
In the universe
Thales
water-believes water is the condition for life becuase we all need it. (material)
Anixemenes
air-believed that air was prior to water because you can't live very long without it. (material)
anaximander
the infinite and the undetermined-believed that whatever it was, it could not be seen. (Ideal or material)
pythagoras
numbers-believed that numbers could be applied to anything becuase without numbers there is no shape. (ideal)
parmenides
permanent reality-whatever it is it is permanent and unchanging. (Ideal)
Heraclitus
changing reality-believes that things are constantly changing. We are not the same person we were 10 years ago. (Ideal)
Empedocles
changing and unchanging reality (Ideal)
Anaxagoras
mind-believes there is a universal mind. (Ideal)
Atomists
atoms and matter-believes there is an atomic structure to the universe and matter is the basis of all things. (material)
What does metaphysics mean?
The foundation of all foundations. Getting to the bottom of something. Meta means going beyond and physics means physical. Going beyond the physical.
What is a metaphysician?
A natural philosopher
An idealist focus is on what?
the mind, thought, and soul. They believe that the source of all things is something more infinite, something that cannot be touch.
A materialist focuses on what?
The material subject or physical items. Something you can touch.
Who was a lover of wisdom?
Socrates
Whose teaching taught of us Socrates?
Plato
What is the dialectal method?
Question and answer
Who were the sophists?
A group of teachers who focused on how to win an argument instead of truth and justice.
In socrates opinion, what is the key to salvation?
education
Socrates is known as the physician of the what?
Soul
In socrates opinion evil was the result of what?
lack of knowledge
To know good is to what?
To do good
What does Socrates believe that death is?
Either a dreamless sleep or a door leading to paradise
What is Socrates legacy?
freedom of conscience, speech, assembly, religion, and liberation of the mind.
How long did Plato study under Socrates?
20 years
Who organized the first school academy in the West?
Plato
What is Plato's metaphysics of reality?
Realm 1: the invisible, permanent, divine, perfect, and real.
Realm 2: the visible, changin, human, imperfect, and unreal.
What are Plato's Theory of Forms?
Absolute justice, absolute good, absolute, beauty, absolute holiness
Plato's theory of society includes 3 classes. What are they?
Philosophers/kings, soldiers, workers. These 3 classes should never interfere with the other.
What did Plato's curriculum emphasize?
That people should do what they are good at. Specialize in your field to give the best service.
For Plato, social harmony or justice is what?
Everyone tending to his own business.
What 4 experiences does Buddha witness in his life that change him forever?
Sickness-, old age, death, and the monk
What are the 4 noble truths that Buddha discovers?
Life is suffering-no one can escape it. there is a cause for suffering-our attachment to things of this world. Suffering can be overcome-the answer lies within us. the eight fold path.
What is the eightfold path?
Right understanding, right purpose, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation.
Confucius belief was that we could save ourselves through what?
a moral and value system
What was Confucius' concept of the superior individual?
Sensitivity/sympathy
love/goodness
truth/honesty
understanding
transformation through education
Confucius believed that the best was to transmit values was by example in what type of relationships?
Parent/child
Husband/wife
Older sibling/younger sibling
Ruler/citizen
Teacher/student
Confucius did not practice a certain religion or faith but what?
Anything that brought people closer together