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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Logic
the science of evaluating arguments
What is an argument?
a gropu of statements with a premise that supports a conclusion
what is a statement
A sentence that is either true or false
what are truth values
the truth and falsity of a statement
what is a premise
statements that are resons or evidence for the conclusion
what is a conclusion
the statement that the evidence supports or implies
what is a conditional statement
Its and if and then statement
what are some conclusion indicators
therefore, wherefore, thus, consequently, we may infer, accordingly, we may conclude, it must be that, for this reason, so, entails that, hence, it follows that, implies that, as a result.
what are some premise indicators
since, as indicated by, because, for, in that, may be inferred from, as, given that, seeing that, for the reason that, isasmuch as, owing to
what is an inference
the reasoning process expressed by an argument
what is a proposition
meaning or information content of a statement
what syllogistic logic
logic based on fundamental elements or terms
what is modal logic
logic that involves possiblilty, necessity, belief, and doubt
what are nonarguments
warnings, pieces of advice, statements of belief, statements of opinion, lossely associated statements, reports, expository passages, illustrations, explanations, conditional statements
what is a deductive argument
argument which the arguer claims it is impossible to coclude false with true premises
what is an inductive argument
argument where the arguer claims improbable that the conclusion be false given true premises
what are the different inductive arguments
prediction, authority, analogy, signs (symbols), casual inference, genralization
what is a valid deductive argument
argument that is impossible to be false given true premises
what is an invalid deductive argument
argument that is possible to be false given true premises
what are strong inductive arguments
argument that is improbable that the conclusion be false given true premises
what are weak inductive arguments
conclusion does not follow probably from the premises
what is a sound argument
argument that is valid and has all true premises
what is a cogent argument
inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises
what is the counterexample method
argument constructed a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion