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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
“…is the name given to a theory widely held by ordinary people, … according to which all human actions when properly understood can be seen to be motivated by selfish desires.”
“Psychological Egoistic"
“the only kind of ultimate desire is the desire to get or to prolong pleasant experiences, and to avoid or to cut short unpleasant experiences for oneself.”
“Psychological Egoistic Hedonism”
“the idea that each person ought to pursue his or her own self-interest exclusively.”
Ethical Egoism
clams that there is no ideal or uniquely correct resolution to ethical disagreements, because there are no ethical standards that are objectively correct…. Once we have identified our deepest moral commitments, we can go no further. It makes no sense … to suppose that such commitments could be false or irrational.” [p. 510]
Ethical Subjectivism
“A proposition or judgment is objectively true just in case it is true independently of anyone’s thinking it is.”
“A proposition is subjectively true just in case its truth depends on whether the speaker endorses it….. Truth is in the eye of the beholder.”
Theories about the content of morality, i.e., about what we ought or ought not do, about what it morally good or morally bad, about what makes things right or wrong.
Normative theories
Theories about normative ethical claims: How (if at all) can we know them? Are they meaningful? Do they have a truth-value?
Meta-ethical theories
“…an act is morally right if, and only if, the person judging the action approves of it.” –“Normative subjectivism allows that moral judgments can be true or false. There is truth in ethics, but no objective truth.”
“Normative Subjectivism”
“…normative ethical theories, and moral judgments quite generally, cannot be true.” I.e., they have no truth-value at all: it makes no sense to say that they are true (or false).

Consider: “Murder is morally wrong.” –This looks like “Murder is unjustified homicide,” that is, it looks like it claims something that must be either true or false. – –But this is misleading. It ought to be understood as equivalent to, “Murder, Yuck!” which simply expresses a sentiment ,and has no truth-value, or as equivalent to “Do not commit murder,” which is not a claim but a command, and so likewise has no truth-value.
“Meta-Ethical Subjectivism”
"...actions are right in proportion as they tend to produce happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain...."