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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Skeletal organ system
organs involved
protects, supports body organs
bones and joints
integumentary system
organs involved
protects from external environment
skin, hair and nails
muscular system
organs involved
allows for movement, posture and heat
muscles that are voluntarily used
nervous system
organs involved
respond to internal and external changes
brain, nerves, spinal cord viscera
endocrine system
organs involved
produces hormones that regulate functions
pitutary and pineal glands, pancreas, thymus
cardiovascular system
organs invoved
transports O2,CO2, etc from tissues to blood
heart, arteries, veins
lymphatic system
organs involved
protects against disease
lymphatic vessels, spleen, lymph nodes
respiratory system
organs involved
oxygenating blood, removing CO2
nose, lungs, trachea
digestive system
organs involved
breaks down food so it can be absorbed
stomach, liver, large and small intestine
unrinary system
organs involved
eliminating Nitrogenous wastes from body
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
reproductive system
organs involved
reproduction of offspring
male- tested, scrotum, penis etc
female- ovary, uterus, vagina
Negative feedback
imbalance in homeostasis. the effect and the reaction are in opposite directions. most common. body glucose levels FALL, so body releases insulin, levels RISE.
Positive feedback
imbalance of homeostatis. least common. the effect and result are in the same direction. contractioms
serous membrane
lines body cavity that does not open to exterior
mucous membrane
lines body cavity that does open to exterior
4 tissue types
3 types of cell junction
tight junction
gap junction
5 characteristics of epithelial cells
1. avascular
2. cellularity
3. special contacts
4. polarity
5. innervated
function of epithelial cells
protection, secretion, absorbtion
classification of epithelial cells
1. simple squamos
2. simple cuboidal
3. simple columnar
4. stratified squamos
5. transitional
simple squamos
found in areas that do not need protection. thin lair that allows for rapid diffusion.
pseudostratified columnar
prime tissue of respiratory tract (cilia)
contains goblet cells.
main function is secretion
2 types of glands
endocrine glands- secretions are directly into blood stream. mainly hormoes
exocrine- secretions put through a duct.
pancreas, has exocrine and endocrine functions
merocrine secretion
products are secreted by exocytosis. (Pancreas, salivary, sweat)
holocrine system
sebatious glands (oil). products in cell continue to accumulate until cell ruptures
cell that produces secretory product, it rises to the apical surface where the top is sloughed off, releasing the content. (mammory gland)
embryonic tissue that all connective tissue arises from
characteristics of connective tissue
has specialized cells (-cytes)
and Maxtrix, groud substance and fibers.
structural support components of an organ, even though it has no role in function
areolar characteristics
not very dense
highly vascularized, highly elastic
adipose characteristics
sparse matrix
richly vascularized, develops where areolar is plentiful
shock absorbe and insulation
reticular characteristics
resembles areolar but more fibers int he matrix. forms a network where fibroblasts lie.
Dense regular connective tissue
closely packed bundles of collegen fibers running in the same direction. allows tissue to stretch to an extent (ligaments, tendons)
dense irregular connective tissue
collegan fibers are thicker then dense regular and arranged irregularly. found where tension is in more than one direction
stand to tension and compression. lacks nerve fibers and avascular. nutriets are from diffusion. fluid matrix allows it to rebound after compression,
predominate cell type of growing tissue
hyaline cartilage
most abundant
large number of collagen
covers ends of long bones
elastic cartilage
nearly identical to hyaline but more elastic fibers. found where strength and stretchability are needed
found where hyaline cartilage meets a true ligament or tendon. compressible and resists tension well. gives strong support.
osseous tissue
supports and protects. provides cavity for fat storage, RBS production
atypical connective tissue. has fibers that are dissolved.
3 types of membranes
cutaneous- skin
mucous- lines body cavity that open to exterior
serous- lines cavities that do not open to exterior
3 types of muscle
smooth-involuntary, not striated.
skeletal-voluntary, has striations and many nuclei
cardiac- heart, intercalated discs, striated branched
only cell that conducts action potential using electrical signal, it controls the function of the cell.
simple columnar
main function is to absorb. found lining the digestive tract
stratified squamos
protects underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion.
simple cuboidal
secretes and absorbes. found in small glands
found in ground substance and is the amount present represents how viscous the substance is.
mast cell
function is to detect foreign substances. they are filled with granulars and are responsible for immediate inflammation.`
large cells that active phagocitize fungi, bacteria, and other harmful cells.
lamina propria
loose connective tissue underneath the epithelium
superfical fascia
components of epidermis
keratin, stratified squamos
merkel cells
sensory receptors that sense light touch
stratum basale
bottom layer. one row of cells (keratinocytes). rapidly undergoing mitosis. aka stratum germinativum
stratum spinosum-
spiny layer. cells are connected by desmosomes. cells contain thick filament used to make keratin.
stratum granulosum
grainy layer. cells are beginning to die. they are flattened, organells deteriorating.
stratum corneum
has glycolipids to make skin waterproof. dead keratinocytes.
stratum lucidum
"clear layer" only found in the thick non-hairy skin. an extra layer of protection.
adipose tissue backed by areolar connective tissue. aka superficial fasia or subcutaneous layer
langerham cells
macrophases toxins, etc. immune functions. epidermal dendritic cells.
2 layers of dermis
papillary layer- connects epidermis to dermis. areoloar connective tissue.
reticular layer-80% of dermis, dense irregular connective tissue
sudoiferous gland
eccrine gland- sweat gland
sebatious gland
found around hair follicals.
arrector pilli muscles
cause hair to "stand up"
stratum corneum
accounts for 3/4 of epidermal thickness.
pacinian corpuscle
deep pressue receptor
thick skin
palms, fingertips, soles of feet. has 5 layers. deep to superficial stratum: basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum.
thin skin
all other areas of body, no stratum lucidum, and layers are thinner.
cells that synthesis pigment, melanin.
eccrine glands
sweat gland (merocrine sweat gland) abundant on palms, soles of feet and forehead.simple tubular gland
apocrine sweat gland
ducts empty into hair follicles. found in anogenital and axillary areas.
ceruminous gland
modified apocrine gland. produces cerumen (ear wax)
mammary gland
secretes milk, modified sweat gland
sebaceous gland
secretes sebum. simple areolar gland. found all over except palms and soles. holocrine glands
sebaceous gland
secretes sebum. simple areolar gland. found all over except palms and soles. holocrine glands