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29 Cards in this Set

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Kant's Master Argument on Conditions of Possible Experience
1. synthetic a priori truths define necessary conditions of experience.
2. Experience has a certain order and structure
3. We can't explain how we have a priori
4. We must give up the assumption that the world is independent of the character of experience
Synthetic a priori truth
necessary and universal truth gleaned through experience. i.e. every event has a cause
The argument for transcendental deduction
1. I have experiences
2. All my experiences belong to one consciousness
3. For my experiences to belong to a single consciousness, it must be possible to think of these as mine.
4. This ability to think of them as mine requires the capacity to make judgments
5. Categories are the logical forms of judgments, and since these forms are necessary for experiences, so are the categories.
what is transcendental idealism
the idea that our experiences come from our perception of things, not the things in and of themselves
what is phenomenon
the world as experienced
what is a neumenon?
an empty, limiting, and unknowable concept
The Second Analogy
1. the distinction between subjective perception and objective events is a necessary condition of any experience
2. The distinction can only be made in relation to the necessary order of our perceptions
3. If the order of our perceptions of a change is necessary, then the change is causally determined
Argument 1 for space as a priori
1. experience requires that appearances be presented apart from me and each other.
2. in order for experiences to be presented this way, the presentation of space must be presupposed.
3. Therefore, the presentation of space is presupposed by experience, and cannot be derived from it.
Argument 2 for space as a priori
1. we cannot perceive objects without space, but we can perceive space without objects
2. therefore, the presentation of space is logically required for the presentation of objects
Postulate for immortality
Since holiness is required as a necessity, and since this can only be found in an endless progress, the immortality of the soul is a necessary postulate of practical reason
Postulate for the existence of God
1.we must postulate the exact coherence of happiness with morality (this is the highest good)
2. this can only exist if God exists
3. it is morally necessary to assume the existence of God
Kant on self-conceit, self-love, and self-interest
when self-love becomes a lawgiving, unconditional, practical principle, it becomes self-conceit.
the moral law only restricts our self love to ensure that it accords with the moral law. In this sense there is a rational self-love
pure practical reason strikes down self-conceit, and brings about humiliation. However, there is an accompanying positive feeling of respect for the moral law.
What are perfect duties?
required specific actions or omissions
What are imperfect duties?
Requires one to set an end, with lenience on actions that can be taken toward that end.
Kant on objectivity and experience
1. idea of an object that exists independently of our perception is a necessary condition of any experience
2. The notion of an object gives experience a certain order and coherence, and because of this we judge that various properties are properties of an object
3. this means that when we give different representations to one objects, we assert a unity (indicated by the copula "is")
4. objectivity and TUA are two sides of the same unity, and both require the categories.
5. Kant distinguishes idea of TO from idea of neumenon.
categorical imperatives
actions that people do because they are absolute non-negotiable duties of all rational beings to follow them.
Formula for Universal Law
Act as if if the maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law of nature
Formula for Humanity
Act so that you use humanity always at the same time as an end, and never merely as a means
What was Hume's position on reason?
Hume thought that reason was instrumental, but not normative. It couldn't tell you what was a sin, and reason is only theoretical. Kant believes reason is both theoretical and practical
What is reality based on for Hume?
sentiment and emotion
Hume believed that _______ could never be false
emotions
Hume thought there were two ways for passions to be unreasonable. They were:
founded on suppositions of objects that don't exist
based on false judgments
Contradiction in conception
you cannot conceive a world in which your maxim is universal law (suicide and false promise examples)
Contradiction in will
You can conceive a world, but you can't will it into being. (Example helping others)
What are our two necessary objectives?
happiness of others and self-perfection
Three elements of Hume's concept of causility
constant conjunction, necessary connection, and succession
What are the two objections to Kant as outlined by Baron?
1) Sentiment doesn't seem to matter
response: misunderstanding of Kant's definition of duty, and no evidence one way or the other in the Groundwork
2) what does duty add?
response: adds commitment (one who acts from duty puts morality first)
In what year did Hume die?
1776
In what year was Kant's groundwork published?
1785