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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Natural Law
The belief that everyone is born with a certain sense of right and wrong.
Eternal Law
Combination of Natural and Divine Law
Right and Wrong are Governed by reason (you can act wrongly if you don't know what is right)
God can do anything he wants
Protestant Reformation w/ Luther
Hobbes' Leviathon
Hobbes's lifespan
Hobbes Two Fundamental Laws of Nature
1) Seek Peace, but prepare for war
2) Give up those things you want others to give up
Descartes's lifespan
Descartes's meditations
Descartes's First Stage of Doubt
1) Mistrust of belief based on senses: beliefs based on senses, senses have deceived, reasonable to mistrust something that has deceived you, all perceptions could be false
Descartes's Second Stage of Doubt
Any experience could be a dream: no internal disctinction between dream and real, dreams are false, being awake could be false
Descartes's Third Stage of Doubt
Evil Genius/Radical Skepticism: there could be an all-powerful being, they could be an evil genius, all my former beliefs could be mistaken.
I think, therefore, I am (Descartes's first truth)
Descartes's Argument for God's existence
2) I cannot be mistaken about the ideas that I have.

3) There can never be more objective reality in the effect (i.e., the idea) than there is formal reality in the cause (i.e., object of the idea).

4) I have an idea of perfection or infinite substance.

5) My idea of perfection is the most objectively real idea that I have.

6) The only possible formal cause of that idea is infinite substance
Descartes Argument for Reality for the External World
I have a "strong inclination" to believe in the reality of external material things due to my senses.
God must have created me with this nature.
If independent material things do not exist, God is a deceiver.
But God is not a deceiver.
So material things exist and contain the properties essential to them.
Res Cogitans and Res Extensa difference
Mind has no primary or secondary qualities
Descartes Argument from Doubt
I can doubt that my body exists.
2. I cannot doubt that my mind exists.


\3. Therefore, my mind is distinct from my body. [from 1 and 2]
OBJECTION: Masked Man Fallacy
Descartes Argument from Divisibility
1) Body can be divided physically
2) Mind cannot be divided physically
3) Not two things with different properties can be the same
Locke's lifespan
Types of Simple Ideas
1) one sense (color)
2) multiple senses (motion, texture)
3) reflection (thinking, willing, memory)
4) sense and reflection (pleasure, pain, existence)
complex ideas
1) modes: simple and complex (characteristics)
2) substance (people, animals, elements, objects)
Locke's Argument for God's Existence
1) We exist
2) Nothing comes from nothing
3) Whoever created us must be all-powerful
4) Couldn't have created knowledge from nothing
5) Therefore, God exists
Primary Qualities
Patterns in existing objects that are external to (independent from) us
Secondary Qualities
Do not resemble anything in the objects themselves (i.e.: pain)
Locke's Types of Knowledge
1) Identity and difference (color)
2) Relation (morality and math)
3) Co-existence (qualities go along)
4) Real existence
Locke's Degrees of Knowledge
1) Intuitive: most secure, can't be doubted
2)Sensitive: knowledge we acquire through sensing
3) Demonstrative: we don't immediately know it, but it can be proved correct
Locke's True and False Ideas
Mixed modes most likely to be incorrect
Truth and falseness is to propositions, not ideas
when we refer our ideas of substances to real existences, or to real essences, they will be false
Leibniz's Types of Monads
Bare monads, animal souls (subconscious), rational souls (conscious, memory)
Two Principles of Reasoning
1) Contradiction
2) Sufficient Reasoning
Leibniz Complete Concept
Everything that has been, is, or will be true of a subtance, deriving from its form.
Leibniz idea of perception
A perception is an internal state of a simple substance and not to be found in the composite or the machine.
Berkeley's Proof for existence of God
1) ideas of sense have a cause
2) they don't depend on will so they must spring from some other cause
3) don't depend on material objects, since matter does not exist
4) so they must be caused by some other mind, since only minds can be causes
5) the mind must be all-powerful because of the details of our ideas
6)this mind must be good because of the predictability of our ideas
Berkeley's basic argument
no thought can exist without the mind
nothing can exist unless it can be perceived