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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lacks clarity; can be interpreted in @least 2 diff/distinct interpretations
ex: she is cold
vague claims are imprecise can be interpreted w/in a range of possible meanings
Analytical definitions
analyzes; tells what the thing is
Stipulating definition
coin a phrase (introduce new term) can be used to stipulate a special meaning for a word
Precising definition
used to eliminate vagueness
Etymological definitions
dealing with the word orgin or history
inoffensive way of saying something unpleasent
a word or phrase used to produce a negative effect on a reader or listeners attitudes about something.
Hypothetical Syllogismis : modus ponens
P1: if A then B
P2: A

C: B
Hypothetical Syllogisms: Modus Tollens
P1: If A then B
P2: not B

C: Not A
Hypothetical Syllogisms: Chain Argument
P1: If A then B
P2: If B then C

C: If A then C
Disjunctive Syllogisms
P1: Either A or B
P2: not A

C: B
Categorical Syllogisms: Valid Syllogism #1
P1: All A are B
P2: All B are C

C: All A are C
Categorical Syllogisms: Valid Syllogism #2
P1: All A are B
P2: No B are C

C: No A are C
Formal fallacies
can be detected by merely examining the form of the argument
Example: Affirming the Consequent
Informal Fallacies
can only be detected by examining the content of an argument
Fallacies of Relevance (families)
“argument” from popularity
common practice, tradition, nationalism, peer pressure, group think
“argument” from force
“argument” from pity
apple polishing
ad hominem (all varieties)
straw man
red herring
Fallacies of Weak Induction (family)
Hasty generalization
Biased sample
Weak analogy
Appeal to unqualified authority
Slippery slope
Fallacies of Presumption (family)
Loaded question
False dilemma
Begging the question
Argument from Outrage
When anger functions as a premise
Scare Tactics/Argument by Force
When fear functions as a premise
Argument from Pity
When sympathy functions as a premise
Apple Polishing
When flattery motivates premises
Peer Pressure/Group Think
When need for approval or belonging motivates premises
Argument from Popularity/ Tradition/Common Practice
When a widely-held belief that something is true or right is deemed sufficient support
Two Wrongs Fallacy
When wrong is taken for right
Red Herring/Smokescreen
answer did not address question.
if no other fallacy applies
Ad Hominem
Attacking the person instead of their argument
Abusive ad hominem
attack the person directly
Circumstantial ad hominem
attack the persons circumstances or motives
Tu quoque - Inconsistency ad hominem
a charge of hypocrisy or inconsistency
False Dilemma
Limits consideration to only two options although other alternatives are available
False Dilema: Perfectionist Fallacy
done perfect or not done at all
False Dilema: Line drawing
if you cant draw the line it didnt happen
Genetic Fallacy
attacking source/roots of argument
poisoning the well
as hominem in advance
attacking the person before the messege or argument takes place
slippery slope
weak induction
domino argumen
burden of proof
burden is on the person making the claim
Fallacies of Gramatical Analogy (family)
fallacy of composition
fallacy of division
Fallacy of Hasty generalization
generalizing from too small a sample
Straw Man
disstorts someones opinions before they hear the argument
may function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise
a suggestion/implicatio that is made indirectly
often creates a negative impression
loaded question
often a yes or no question that rests on unwarranted or unjustified assumptions
an expression used to protect a claim from criticism by weakening it
and expression used to play down or diminish the importance of a claim
extravagant overstatement
proof surrogate
an expression used to suggest that there is evidence or authority for a claim without actually saying there is