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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An Excessive accumulation of body fat.
Body Mass Index
Obesity is associated with:
Heart Disease
Skin Disease
What are the chagnes in Energy Intake?
1. Availability of inexpensive, palatable foods
2. Increased portion sizes
3. High fat Intake
4.Increased refined sugar intake
5. Decreased fruit, vegitable and fiber intake
what are the changes in energy expenditure?
1. Decreased physical activity
2. Decreased leisure time physical activity
3. Increased sedintary behavior
Android Fat
Occurs more in males. Visceral fat around abdomen. Incrases rish of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia
Gynoid fat
lower body fat. Found in women and is resistant to lipolytic stmiuli.
Why is the Traditional energy blaance equation flawed?
Because it doesn't take into account genetics and metabolism. Can gain fat if you ingest more fat, even if you take in less calories. Medication can also play into this.

Stored Fat = Fat In - Fat Out
Why is dieting bad?
Dieting is bad becuase your body automatically will decrease the cost of physical activity by reducing metabolism and body mass to meet the lower caloric intake.
Ketogenic Diet
A ketogenic diet derives 60-70% of calories from fat in order to get the body to utilize fat and lower insulin. This produces ketones. It can be detrimental in the long run because of diseases and decreased lean muscle mass (body will start using amino acids for energy)
Why is high meal frequency good?
High meal frequency leads to a lower mean insulin level and lower LDL cholesterol
What is ATP?
The basic molecule to produce energ for the room
What are the three energy systems?
ATP-CP (short bursts)
Lactic Acid (medium 1 min)
Aerodic (long, longer than 1 min)
What are the 3 important functions of carbohydrates?
1) Fuel for energy
2) Protein sparing
3) Fuel fron Central Nervous System (brain) and other tissues
What is the hormone that stimulates glycogen synthesis?
What is the hormone that stimulates glycogen breakdown?
formation of glycogen, stimulated by insulin
The creation and storage of fat
the break down of fat
How does insulin and adrenaline affect Hormone Sensitive Lipase?
Insulin inhibits HSL so fat is stored more. Adrenaline increases the amount of HSL, and therefore helps burn more fat.
What are the principles of exercise physiology? (MOASPRIM)
Modifiability- some variables can be changed and some canot

Overload principle-The body must be subjected to a certain amount of stress of training effects to occur.

Adaptation- the changes that occur in the body as a result of training

Specificity principle- Adaptations are particular to the overload imposed and seen only in the muscles trained

Periodization of Training- Variations in training are needed for adaptations to occur

Rate of Progression/Maintenance- Variation is necessary to make sure that adaptations occur

Individual principle- An excercise program for an individual works better than one working for everyone.

Motivation- will keep you on track
List 4 fuels stored in your muscles that can be used during excercise
Muscle TG, glycogen, ATP, CP, amino acids
Name 5 adaptations that occur in the muscular system
1) increased muscle strength, size and power
2)shift from type IIx to type IIa fibers
3)greater ability to utilize fuels aerobically
4)increased storage of fuels
5)increase in albumin
Why must you periodize training?
in order to assure that adaptations occur
What are the four components of energy expenditure?
exercise duration, intensity, antecedent diet, training status
Why would a person with more type 1 muscle fiber have a greater ability to excel at aerobic exercise?
slow oxidative eases slow metabolism predominately
what is concentric and eccentric muscle contraction?
concentric- muscle shortens
eccentric- muscle lengthens
What is a motor unit?
A motorneuron and all the muscle fibers it controls