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74 Cards in this Set

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What does OSHA stand for?
occupational safety and health act
What is OSHA's authority?
promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, petition courts to restrain continuance of work when imminent danger is evident
What are OSHA's responsibilities?
conduct inspections and investigations, issue citations, and propose penalties for violations
What is imminent danger?
any conditions or practices in any place of employment which are such that a danger exists which could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement procedures otherwise provided by this Act
Imminent danger requirements
must be a threat of death or serious physical harm, health hazards present and exposure to them will shorten life or cause substantial reduction in physical of mental efficiency, must be immediate or imminent
Types of mechanical hazards
hazards from machinery, moving parts can catch, cut, shear, crush, or scalp
controls for mechanical hazards
machine guarding, no loose clothing or long hair, interlocking devices
types of structural hazards
damaged or unstable building elements, ladders with missing rungs, gangways without railings, missing manhole covers, rotted wood or corroded metal, overhead hazards
controls for structural hazards
whenever employees are exposed to a fall of 6 feet or more above a lower level use guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall arrest systems, survey the site before working and continually audit as work continues, guard or cover any opening or holes immediately, construct all floor hold covers so they will effectively support two times the weight of employees, equipment, and materials, it is better to use fall prevention systems such as guardrails than fall protection systems such as safety nets or fall arrest devices
types of noise hazards
continuous, intermittent, impact, high frequency noise is more annoying and has greater potential for causing hearing loss
adverse effects of noise hazards
interferes with normal communication, may startle or distract worker, may cause physical damage to the ear resulting in temporary or permanent hearing loss, increase heart rate and blood pressure, stress to other body organs causing increased hormone output and muscle tension leading to nervousness, insomnia, and fatigue
NRR
noise reduction ratings - estimates number of dB of attenuation obtained by proper use of plugs or muffs, use 1/2 NRR as guide
exposure guidelines
no unprotected exposure greater than 140dB, consider the combined effects of more than one exposure interval and more than one sound level, daily limit is exceeded if X is greater than 1
noise equation
C1/T1 + C2/T2 + C3/T3…+ Cn/Tn = X
C=actual exposure
T=maximum exposure allowed at that level
heat related disorders
heat rash, heat cramps, heat syncope, dehydration, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
predisposing factors of heat stress
physical condition, obesity, alcohol/drugs, dehydration, sunburn, infection, illness, acclimatization, hot environment, PPE, heavy workload, anxiety, prior heat illness
recognition-physiological markers of heat stress
oral temperature + 1 degree F=core temp >100.4=heat stress, heart rate, water loss (dehydration)
actions that reduce exposure to heat stress
adjusting clothing to increase evaporative loss, slowing work rate, taking small breaks to lower metabolic rate, using shortcuts in work methods
effects of heat stress on attitude
irritability, low morale, absenteeism, unsafe behavior
WBGT
wet bulb globe temperature
WBGT equation on cloudy day or indoors
WBGT=0.7NWB+0.3GT
WBGT equation on sunny day
WBGT=0.7NWB+0.2GT+0.1DB
NWBT
natural wet bulb temperature - air flows naturally over a wetter wick wrapped around a temperature sensor sensitive to both humidity and air movement
GT
globe temperature - measure of radiant heat from the solid surrounding and convective heat exchange with the ambient air when all surrounding surfaces are same temperature as air, GT is equal to air temperature
DB
dry bulb temperature - direct measure of air temperature
heat TLVs
threshold limit values
cold temperature injuries
hypothermia, frostbite, trench foot
hypothermia
as body temperature approaches the low nineties gross muscular incoordination becomes obvious stumbling falling and inability to use hands, the victim may become cantankerous or forgetful and display inappropriate behavior
frostbite
localized freezing of skin (30.2 degrees F)
3 degrees of frosbite
freezing w/o blistering, freezing w/ blistering, freezing w/ tissue death
trench foot
from prolonged immersion in cold water, swollen, numb, white, or cyanotic, then pain, tingling, swelling and blistering
wind chill
index used to determine the risk of cold injury by estimating the cooling effect of wind
types of ionizing radiation
alpha, beta, gamma particles
alpha particles
positively charged heavy particles, release a significant amount of energy as they pass through matter which in turn produces more ions, travel only a short distance, alpha emitters are not very hazardous as long as they are kept outside the body but are dangerous if ingested or inhaled especially when they are concentrated in bone liver or kidney tissues
beta particles
very small fast negatively charged particles, can penetrate wood clothing and skin, overexposure can cause skin burns, as a beta particle loses energy and slows down it emits X radiation, beta particles and beta emitters are hazardous by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact
gamma radiation or gamma rays
high energy electromagnetic energy with a very short wavelength that originates in the nucleus of an atom, travels at the speed of light and has an extended range, readily penetrate the body where they are scattered or absorbed this process produces secondary radiation in the form of charged particles and X rays, x rays are similar to gamma rays except that they do not originate in the nucleus, because of its energy and penetration capabilities gamma radiation is considered the most hazardous form of radiation
health concerns of ionizing radiation
break choromosomes, mutate DNA, induce cancer
exposure control of ionizing radiation methods
time, distance, shielding
controlling radiation with time
direct relationship, total exposure=radiation sources x time (hrs)
controlling radiation with distance
inverse relationship, as you get further from the source the intensity decreases
controlling radiation with shielding
alpha particles stopped by a sheet of paper, beta particles stopped by a layer of clothing or by a few millimeters of a substance such as aluminum, gamma rays stopped by several feet of concrete or a few inches of lead
inverse square law
any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions without limit to its range will obey the inverse square law I2=I1(d12/d22)
ALARA
as los as reasonably achievable
key issues of occupational diseases
limited resources require targeting, changes in US workplaces and its workforce (increased diversity, shift from manufacturing to services, longer hours, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, part-time and temporary work
magnitude of problem of occupational diseases
each day it is estimated that 9,000 US workers sustain disabling injuries on the job, 16 US workers die from an injury sustained at work, 137 US workers die from work-related diseases, estimated total cost is $171 billion
NORA research priorities
disease and injury, work environment and workforce, research tools and approaches
patterns of hearing loss
conductive & sensorineural
conductive hearling loss
problem before the stapes footplate, impaired transmission through external or middle ears, generally correctable
sensorineural hearing loss
damage beyond the stapes footplate, impaired mechanoreception or neural transmission, generally not curable
types of hearing protection
inserts, muffs, canal caps
inserts
plugs fit directly into ear canal, fit depends on canal configuration
muffs
cups cover both ears, fit depends on headband tension
canal caps
combination of plugs with headband, fit depends on correct orientation, cap placement, and headband tension
skin disease
historically the most occupational disease, now second most common OSHA-recordable illness
common skin reactions
chemical irritaion & allergy
chemical skin irritation
acute irritant dermatitis, chronic irritant dermatitis, corrosion (burns), phototoxicity
skin allergy
allergic contact dermatitis, photosensitivity
occupational asthma
a disease characterized by variable airflow limitation or airway hyperresponsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not to stimuli encountered outside the workplace, OA with latency (sensitization), OA without latency (irritant-induced)
silicosis
oldest known occupational disease, still the most common form of pneumoconiosis, a chronic diffuse interstitial fibronodular disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust containing free crystalline silica, diagnosis: history of exposure, radiographic abnormalities
synonyms of silicosis
dust consumption, Ganister disease, Grinders’ asthma, Grinder’s rot, Grit consumption, Potter’s rot, Mason’s disease, Miner’s asthma, Miner’s phthisis, Sewer disease, Stonemason’s disease, Chalicosis
byssinosis
(cotton dust)a respiratory disorder characterized by a temporal patter of chest tightness and shortness of breath most prominent during the first shift worked after weekend away from the job, Monday symptoms, gradual onset over several hours, reversible airways obstruction (initially), described by Ramazzini in 1700s
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a spectrum of chronic respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, symptoms: cough, sputum production, dyspnea, wheezing, chest discomfort
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
a spectrum of lung disease resulting from repeated inhalation of and sensitization to a wide variety of agents, organic dusts, low-molecular weight chemical agents
causative agents of hypersensitivity pneumonitis
bacteria, fungi, amoeba, animal proteins, chemical
asbestosis
caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, serpentine (chrysotile), amphiboles (crocidolite, amosite), latency typically > 20 years, other major outcomes lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma
coal-worker's pneumoconiosis
the deposition of coal dust in the lungs and the body’s reaction to it, diagnosis history of exposure and radiographic abnormailities
chemical/physical hazards of the male reproductive system
ionizing radiation, heat, trauma, DBCP, lead
chemical/physical hazards of the female reproductive system
ionizing radiation, surgery, lead, hormones
incidence of cancer deaths in males
24.4%
incidence of cancer deaths in females
22.3%
epicondylitis
inflammation of ECRB - elbow
peritendinitis
MT juntion - wrist
entrapment
impaired gliding of APL or EPB - wrist, digits
carpal tunnel syndrome
nerve damage - hand/wrist