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97 Cards in this Set

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what is the pharynx?
muscular tube from nasal cavity to esophagus
what are the borders of the pharynx?
superiorly - suspended from base of skull
inferiorly - continuous with esophagus at about C6
what does the pharynx do?
is common passage used in breathing, vocalization, swallowing
passively conducts air to trachea
actively moves food into esophagus
what's difference between posterior and anterior walls of pharynx?
posterior and lateral walls are continuous from top to bottom
anterior wall interrupted by nasal and oral cavities as well as larynx
what structures make up the pharyngeal wall?
mucosa
6 PAIRS of muscles = 12 muscles
two named layers of fascia
describe the mucous membrane or mucosa of pharynx - where is it, what is it like?
forms luminal surface
varies according to location
where is the pharyngobasilar fascia in the pharynx?
immediately external to mucosa
is well-defined
attached to skull
blends into esophagus
what are the types of muscles in pharynx?
are overlapping, circularly arranged
constrictor muscles and slender muscles he doesn't name yet
where is the buccopharyngeal fascia in pharynx?
forms outermost layer of pharynx
what are the names of the two layers of fascia i should know in pharynx?
1. pharyngobasilar - right under mucosa is external
2. buccopharyngeal - outermost layer of pharynx
what are the names of the 6 types of muscles i should know in pharynx?
1. superior constrictor
2. middle constrictor
3. inferior constrictor
4. palatopharyngeus
5. salpingopharyngeus
6. stylopharyngeus
what's the origin and insertion of the superior constrictors?
origin:
hamulus of medial pterygoid process of sphenoid bone
pterygomandibular raphe
mylohyoid line on mandible
side of tongue
insertion:
median raphe of pharynx
pharyngeal tubercle of occipital bone
what's the origin and insertion of middle constrictors?
origin:
greater and lesser cornua of hyoid bone
tylohyoid ligament
insertion:
median pharyngeal raphe
what's the origin and insertion of inferior constrictors?
origin:
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
insertion:
median pharyngeal raphe
what are the origins and insertions of the palattopharyngeus muscles?
origin:
hard palate and palatine aponeurosis
insertion:
thyroid cartilage
side of pharynx
esophagus
what are the origins and insertions of salpingopharyngeus?
origin:
cartilage of pharyngotympanic tube
insertion:
blends with palatopharyngeus
what are the origins and insertions of stylopharyngeus?
origins:
styloid prcoess of temporal bone
insertion:
thyroid cartilage
what nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle?
CN IX - glossopharyngeal nerve
what supplies motor innervation to all muscles of pharynx EXCEPT stylopharyngeus?
pharyngeal plexus
what CN supplies fibers to pharyngeal plexus?
vagus - CN X
what do the constrictors do?
squeeze pharynx during swallowing
moves food bolus into esophagus
what do the three longitudinally arranged strap-like muscles of pharynx do?
elevate pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking
what are the three longitudinally arranged strap-like muscles of pharynx?
1. stylopharyngeus
2. salpingopharyngeus
3. palatopharyngeus
what closes the gaps between the constrictor muscles on the sides?
mucosa
pharyngobasilar fascia
buccopharyngeal fascia
or just The Fasicas
what forms the pharyngeal recess? where is it?
is gap between the superior constrictor and skull
what traverses the pharyngeal recess?
1. pharyngotympanic tube
2. ascending palatine artery
3. levator veli palatini muscle
what passes between the gap between the superior and middle constrictors?
1. glossopharyngeal nerve
2. stylopharyngeus muscle
what is between the middle and inferior constrictors?
1. internal laryngeal nerve
2. superior laryngeal artery
where is the retropharyngeal space?
is tween buccopharyngeal fasica of pharynx wall and prevertebral fascia over vertebrae and vertebral muscles
what's in the retropharyngeal space?
loose connective tissue
what does the loose connective tissue in the retropharyngeal space do?
helps mobility of pharynx
what are the three regions of the pharynx?
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx
what are the boundaries of the nasopharynx?
superior: skull base at sphenoid bone and basilar portion of occipital bone
anterior: choanae on either side of posterior nasal septum
inferior: soft palate and oropharynx
posterior: posterior wall of pharynx
what are the boundaries of the oropharynx?
superior: soft palate
anterior: palatoglossal arch and base of tongue
inferior: to level of tip of epiglottis
posterior: from point of contact of soft palate with posterior pharyngeal wall down to level even with tip of epiglottis
the opening to what is in the lateral wall of the nasopharynx?
opening of pharyngotympanic or auditory tube
what's the torus tubarius?
is cartilage end of pharyngotympanic tube
what's the cartilage end of pharyngotympanic tube called?
torus tubarius
where does the salpingopharyngeus muscle attach in relation to the torus and what does it do to the lateral wall of nasopharynx as a result?
attach: lower margin of torus
causes vertical fold in mucosa of lateral wall of nasopharynx
why does the lateral wall of the nasopharynx have a vertical fold in it?
because of attachment to torus of salpingopharyngeus muscle
where is the pharyngeal recess located in relation to the salpingopharyngeal fold?
is immediately posterior to it
where are the pharyngeal tonsils in the nasopharynx?
is in posterior-superior pharyngeal wall submucosally
what's another name for the pharyngeal tonsils when they're swollen?
adenoids
where's the oropharynx in general?
superiorly connected to nasopharynx
anteriorly connected to oral cavity
inferiorly connected to laryngopharynx
what's another name for the palatine arches?
tonsillar pillars
what's another name for tonsillar pillars?
palatine arches
what forms the anterolateral walls of the oropharynx?
elevations of palatine arche mucosa
where are the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches?
palatoglossal is more anterior than palatopharyngeal arch which is posterior obviously
what muscles form the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal muscles respectively?
palatoglossal arch - formed by palatoglossus muscle
palatopharyngeal arch - formed by palatopharyngeus muscle
what takes up the space between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches?
palatine tonsils!
what encapsulates the palatine tonsils?
pharyngobasilar fascia
where are the palatine tonsils?
near gap between superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors
tween palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches
what's the removal of the tonsils called?
tonsillectomy
what nerve is at risk of being damaged during a tonsillectomy?
glossopharyngeal nerve - CN IX
how can the pharynx be injured?
ingestion of sharp objects like fish bones or small toys
what other injuries can result from damage to wall of pharynx?
injuries to CN IX, X, sympathetic trunk, carotid arteries because all of these structures are immediately outside pharyngeal wall
what are the boundaries of the laryngopharynx?
superior: tip of epiglottis
anterior: laryngeal surface of epiglottis and base of tongue
inferior: esophageal inlet
posterior: posterior pharyngeal wall from level of tip of epiglottis to esophageal inlet
what's another name for the laryngopharynx?
hypopharynx
what's another name for hypopharynx?
laryngopharynx
what structures are located in the laryngopharynx?
base of tongue
pyriform sinuses
what forms the pyriform sinuses?
extensions of mucosa around larynx and around inner part of thyroid cartilage
what is the blood supply to the pharynx?
1. ascending pharyngeal artery from external carotid artery
2. branches of superior and inferior thyroid arteries
3. veins create plexus draining into thyroid veins and internal jugular vein
what veins do the veins of the pharynx drain into?
internal jugular
thyroid veins
what arteries supply the pharynx?
ascending pharyngeal artery
superior and inferior thyroid arteries
what is the sensory innervation to the pharynx?
afferent fibers from CN IX or glossopharyngeal nerve innervate most of the mucosa via the pharyngeal plexus
what response does the body have to touch stimuli to the pharyngeal plexus?
this is the gag reflex
which CNs control muscle contraction of pharynx?
CN IX and CN X
what is the soft palate?
is fibromuscular shelf
projects posteriorly from edge of hard palate
what does soft palate do?
acts like a valave pressing against posterior pharyngeal wall to close off nasopharynx from oral pharynx when speaking and swallowing
what's a fancy word for swallowing?
deglutination
what's the palatine aponeurosis?
is a sheet of fibrous tissue that makes up the central layer of the soft palate
is connected to posterior edge of hard palate
what does the palatine aponeurosis do?
provides attachment for muscles of soft palate
what forms the palatine aponeurosis?
expanded tendon of tensor veli palatini muscle
continuous laterally with pharyngobasilar fascia
where's the uvula in relation to the soft palate?
projects downward from free edge of soft palate in midline
name the muscles of the soft palate
are 5
1. levator veli palatini
2. tensor veli palatini
3. palatopharyngeus
4. palatoglossus
5. musculus uvulae
what is the origin, insertion and action of the levator veli palatini?
origin: petrous part of temporal bone and cartilage of auditory tube
insertion: palatine aponeurosis
action: raises and retracts soft palate
brings it in contact with posterior pharyngeal wall
what is the origin, insertion and action of the tensor veli palatini?
origin: cartilaginous portion of auditory tube and base of medial pterygoid lamina
insertion: tendon passes around pterygoid hamulus and turns at right angle to form palatine aponeurosis attached to hard palate
action: tenses, depresses soft palate
opens pharyngotympanic tube
what's the origin, insertion, and action fo palatopharyngeus?
origin: posterior hard palate and palatine aponeurosis
insertion: middle pharyngeal constrictor
action: elevates pharynx during swallowing
what's the origin, insertion and action of the palatoglossus?
origin: palatine aponeurosis
insertion: side of tongue
action: pulls soft palate inferiorly and elevates posterior tongue
what's the origin, insertion and action of musculus uvulae?
origin: posterior nasal spine and palatine aponeurosis
insertion: mucosa of uvula
action: draws uvula up and forward
what muscles do the pharyngeal plexus innervate?
all palatal muscles except for tensor veli palatini
what nerve supplies the motor fibers for the pharyngeal plexus?
vagus
a branch off what nerve supplies the tensor veli palatini?
mandibular nerve, CN V3
what nerves provide sensation in soft palate?
lesser palatine nerves
what hole do the lesser palatine nerves come out of and what do they do?
come out of lesser palatine foramen and they provide sensation to soft palate
the lesser palatine nerves are branches off what CN?
maxillary nerve CN V2
what arteries supply the soft palate?
lesser palatine arteries
what hole do the lesser palatine arteries come out of and what main artery do they branch from?
hole is lesser palatine foramen
lesser palatine arteries are branches of maxillary artery
what's the origin, insertion and action of the palatoglossus?
origin: palatine aponeurosis
insertion: side of tongue
action: pulls soft palate inferiorly and elevates posterior tongue
what's the origin, insertion and action of musculus uvulae?
origin: posterior nasal spine and palatine aponeurosis
insertion: mucosa of uvula
action: draws uvula up and forward
what muscles do the pharyngeal plexus innervate?
all palatal muscles except for tensor veli palatini
what nerve supplies the motor fibers for the pharyngeal plexus?
vagus
a branch off what nerve supplies the tensor veli palatini?
mandibular nerve, CN V3
what nerves provide sensation in soft palate?
lesser palatine nerves
what hole do the lesser palatine nerves come out of and what do they do?
come out of lesser palatine foramen and they provide sensation to soft palate
the lesser palatine nerves are branches off what CN?
maxillary nerve CN V2
what arteries supply the soft palate?
lesser palatine arteries
what hole do the lesser palatine arteries come out of and what main artery do they branch from?
hole is lesser palatine foramen
lesser palatine arteries are branches of maxillary artery