Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phenobarbital, pentobarbital, thiopental, secobarbital
Barbiturates
Names
barbiturates:
used for
MOA
Sedatives for anxiety, seizures, insomnia, induction of anesthesia (thiopental)

MOA: facilitate GABA action by increasing duration of Cl channel openingthus decreasing neuron firing
barbiturates: SE/Tox--
Dependence,
additive CNS depression effects with alcohol
Resp, CV depression that can result in death
drug interaction dt inductoin of liver microsomal enzymes
Diazepam, Lorazepam, triazolam, temazepam, axazepam, midazolam, chlordiazepoxide
Benzodiazepines:
names
Benzodiazepines:
MOA
facilitate GABA action by increasing frequency of Cl channel opening. Most have long half-lives and active metabolites.
Benzodiazepines: Clinical use
Anxiety, spasticity, status epilepticus (diazepam), detox (esp ETOH wdrawl)
Benzodiazepines: SE
dependence
additive CNS depresion with ETOH
less risk of Resp depression and coma w/ barbiturates
Treat overdose with flumazenil--competitive antagonist at GABA receptor
Thioridazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine
Antipsychotics:
name
Antipsychotics:
MOA
block Dopamine (D2) receptors
Antipsychotics: Clinical use
schizophrenia, psychosis
Antipsychotics: SE
1)Extrapyramidal system (EPS)PAGE 304!!!!!
sedation
endocrine SE
SE dt blocking muscarinic, Alpha, and histamine receptors

2)Neuroleptic malignant Syn--rigidity, autonomic instability, hyperpyrexia(trt with dantrolene and dopamine agonist)

3) Tardive dyskinesia--stereotypic oral-facal movements probably dt dopamine receptor sensitization; results from long term antipsychotic use
Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone
atypical anti-psychotics
Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone
MOA
block 5 HT2 and dopamine receptors
Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone:
clinical use
Schizophrenia, for both positive and negative Sx.

Olanzapine--also for OCD, anxiety disorders, depression
Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone: SE
fewer extrapyramidal SE than other antipsychotics

Clazapine--may cause agranulocytosis so requires weekly WBC monitoring
Lithium
family
MOA
atypical antipsychotic
Not establiched..possibly related to inhibition of phosphoinositol cascade
Lithium: Clinical use
Mood stabilizer for bipolar affective disorders, blocks relapse, and acute maniac events
Lithium: tox/se
tremor, hypothyroidism, polyuria (ADH antagosist causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), teratogenesis

narrow therapeutic window requires close monitoring of serum levels.
Fluoxetine, sertaline, paroxetine, citalopram

Family
SSRIs
SSRIs

MOA
Seretonin specific reuptake inhibitors

Usually takes about two to three weeks for an effect
SSRIs
Clinical use
Endogenous depression
SSRIs TOX
Fewer than TCA
CNS stimulation---anxiety, insomnia, tremor, anorexia, nausea, vomiting

Seretonin syndrome w/ MAO inhibitor--hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, CV collapse
Imipramine
Amitriptyline
desipramine
nortriptyline
clomipramine
doxepin
Tricyclic antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants--MOA
Block reuptake of NE and serotonin
Tricyclic antidepressants--clinical use
Endogenous depression
bedwetting (imipramine)
OCD (clomipramine)
Tricyclic antidepressants SE
Sedation
alpha blocking effects
atropoine like side effefct (anticholinergic incl tachycardia, urinary retention)

3rd TCAs (amitriptyline) have more anticholinergic effects do 2rd TCAs (nortriptyline)

Desipramine is least sedating
Tricyclic antidepressants Tox
Tri-Cs--convulsions, Coma, cardiotoxicity (arrythmias)

resp depression
hyperpyrexia

Confusion and hallucinations in elderly dt anticholinergic side effects
Trazodone
Buproprion
Venlafaxine
Mirtazapine
Maprotiline
heterocyclics---2nd and 3rd generation antidepressants with varied and mixed mechanisms of action.

Used in major depressive disorders
trazodone
primarily inhibit serotonin reuptake

Toxicity--sedation, nausea, priapism, postural hypotension
buproprion
Smoking cessation
MOA not well known

Tox: stimulant effect -(tachycardia, agitation)
dry mouth
aggravation of psychosis
venlafaxine
Also used in general anxiety disorders

MOA--inhibits serotonin, NE, and dopamine reuptake

Tox--stimulant effects (anxiety, agitation, HA, insomnia)
Mirtapine
Alpha 2 agonist (increases release of NE, seretonin)
Potent 5-HT2 receptor antagonist

Tox--sedation, increase serum cholesterol, increases appetite
Maprotiline--
Blocks NE reuptake
Phenezine
Tranylcypromine
MOA inhibitors
Phenezine
Tranylcypromine--MOA
nonselective MOA inhibition
Phenezine
Tranylcypromine--clinical use
Atypical depression (ie with psychotic or phobic features)
Anxiety, hypochondriasis
Phenezine
Tranylcypromine---Tox
Hypertensive crisis with tyramine ingestion (from foods) and meperidine

CNS stimulation

Contraindication with SSRI or B agonist