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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Metronidazole (Flagyl) is useful to treat?
Periodontal anaerobes
Cephalexin, Keflex, Ceclor
Types of Cephalosporins
antibiotic with actions similar to penicillins, inhibits cell wall synthesis
Cephalosporins
How are Cephalosporins administered?
orally,IM, IV
A wide spectrum against organisms involved with oral infections esp. anaeorobes
Cephalosporins
What's the half-life for cephalosporins?
1 hr. to 6 hrs.
Where are cephalosporins metabolized?
Metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine
What are the adverse effects for cephalosporins?
GI
Other effects of cephalosporins?
superinfection, cross-hypersensitivity with penicillins, renal toxicity
What are cephalosporins useful for?
Infections by microbes resistant to penicillins
*Isoniazid
*Rifampin
*Pyrazinamide
*Ethambutol
Antituberculosis Agents
*bactericidal only aganist actively proliferating organism, disrupts cell wall
*taken for 9-12 months
*used alone as a prophalytic agent to those recently exposed to Tb or seroconverts
Isoniazid
(Antituberculosis Agent)
*Bactericiostatic antibiotic that inhibits DNA and RNA enzymes
*taken for 9-12 months
Rifampin
(Antituberculosis Agent)
*bactericidal
*usually used for the first 2 months or until negative sputum samples
Pyrazinamide
(Antituberculosis Agent)
*bacteriostatic agent
*used if other agents cannot be used
Ethambutol
(Antituberculosis Agent)
*used for prevention of bacterial endocarditis
*used when possibility of introducing significant bacteremias
*based upon American Heart Association recommendations
*also used in prostheic joint replacements
*primary and speciality physicians should be consulted
Antiboitic PreMedication
*Nystatin
*Imidazoles
*Amphotericin B and Griseofulvin
Antifungal Agents
Mycostatin, Lamisil, Nizoral
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
fungicidal and fungistatic antiboitic by altering cell wall permeability
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
*poorly aborsorbed through mucosa,skin, or GI
*few adverse effects
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
What's the primary treatment for Nystatin?
Topical, 10-14 days
*clotrimazole
*miconazole
*ketaconazole
Types of Imidazoles
(Antifungal Agents)
synthetic antifungal agent, avaiable in creams, oinments, lozenges
Imidazoles
(Antifungal Agents)
What do Imidazoles alter?
Cell wall permeability
What are the adverse reactions for Imidazoles?
Mostly GI
Which Imidazoles is contraindicated during pregnancy?
Ketaconzole is contraindicated during pregnancy (oligodactly, syndactly, embryotoxicity)
*Ususully used to treat serious systemic fungal diseases
*little dental uses (used to treat athletes foot)
Amphotericin B And Griseofulvin

(Antifungal Agent)
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Antiviral Agents
*inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis
*applied topically or systemically
*distributed well in all tissues
*selectively toxic to infected host cells
Acycylovir (Zovirax)

(Antiviral Agent)
What are the adverse effects for Acyclovir (Zovirax)?
Headache, burning, itching, GI
(used to treat fever blisters)
*used for prevention of bacterial endocarditis
*used when possibility of introducing significant bacteremias
*based upon American Heart Association recommendations
*also used in prostheic joint replacements
*primary and speciality physicians should be consulted
Antiboitic PreMedication
*Nystatin
*Imidazoles
*Amphotericin B and Griseofulvin
Antifungal Agents
Mycostatin, Lamisil, Nizoral
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
fungicidal and fungistatic antiboitic by altering cell wall permeability
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
*poorly aborsorbed through mucosa,skin, or GI
*few adverse effects
Nystatin
(Antifungal Agents)
What's the primary treatment for Nystatin?
Topical, 10-14 days
*clotrimazole
*miconazole
*ketaconazole
Types of Imidazoles
(Antifungal Agents)
synthetic antifungal agent, avaiable in creams, oinments, lozenges
Imidazoles
(Antifungal Agents)
What do Imidazoles alter?
Cell wall permeability
What are the adverse reactions for Imidazoles?
Mostly GI
Which Imidazoles is contraindicated during pregnancy?
Ketaconzole is contraindicated during pregnancy (oligodactly, syndactly, embryotoxicity)
*Ususully used to treat serious systemic fungal diseases
*little dental uses (used to treat athletes foot)
Amphotericin B And Griseofulvin

(Antifungal Agent)
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Antiviral Agents
*inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis
*applied topically or systemically
*distributed well in all tissues
*selectively toxic to infected host cells
Acycylovir (Zovirax)

(Antiviral Agent)
What are the adverse effects for Acyclovir (Zovirax)?
Headache, burning, itching, GI
(used to treat fever blisters)
*Nucleoside
*Nonnucleoside
*Protease
Types of HIV agents
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
*Nucleoside
*Nonnucleoside
Inhibitors
(hiv agents)
Protease
*All have variable side effects
*Frequently used in combinations
HIV Agents
What are the adverse effects for HIV Agents?
may have GI, CNS, and bone marrow suppression