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80 Cards in this Set

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What's an antihistamine?
A group of drugs that inhibit the actions of histamine.
How is histamine released?
From mast cells located in the skin of dogs, or through certain histamine liberators.
What are some adverse reactions to histamines being released in the body?
Pruritis, hypotension (low blood pressure) and constriction of bronchioles.
What are some side effects of antihistamines?
Sedation or lethargy, CNS excitation, Teratogenicity, birth defects, anti-cholinergic action (decrese in secretions), rare agranulocytosis (increase in lymphocytes and monocytes).
What should antihistamines not be given with?
Anticonvulsant drugs
Are antihistamines better used as a prevention or a treatment?
Prevention
What type of drug is Dihyenhydramine?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Chlorpheniramine?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Hydroxyzine HCL?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Terfenadine?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Dimenhydrinate?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Pyrilamine Maleate?
Antihistamine
What type of drug is Cortisol?
Natural Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Aldosterone?
Mineralocorticoid
What type of drug is Fludrocortisone acetate?
Mineralocorticoid
What type of drug is Florinef (R)?
Mineralocorticoid - Fludrocortisone acetate
What type of drug is Prednisone?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Prednisolone?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Betamethasone?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Dexamethasone?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Methylprednisolone?
Synthetic Glucorticoid
What type of drug is Prednisolone sodium succinate?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid
What type of drug is Betason (R)?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid - Betamethasone
What type of drug is Azium (R)?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone
What type of drug is Depo-medrol (R)?
Synthetic Glucocorticoid - Methylprednisolone
What type of drug is Solu-Delta-Cortef (R)?
Synthetic Glucorticoid - Prednisolone sodium succinate
What type of drug is Flunixin Meglumine?
NSAID
What type of drug is Banamine (R)?
NSAID - Flunixin Meglumine
What type of drug is Phenylbutazone?
NSAID
What type of drug is Butazolidin (R)?
NSAID - Phenylbutazone
What type of drug is Ecotrin (R)?
NSAID - Acetylsalicylic acid
What type of drug is aspirin?
NSAID - Acetylsalicylic acid
What type of drug is Dimethyl sulfoxide?
NSAID
What type of drug is DMSO?
NSAID - Dimethyl Sulfoxide
What type of drug is Carprofen?
NSAID
What type of drug is Rimadyl (R)?
NSAID - Carprofen
What type of drug is Naproxen?
NSAID
What type of drug is Naprosyn (R)?
NSAID - Naproxen
What type of drug is Equiproxen (R)?
NSAID - Naproxen
What type of drug is Etodolac?
NSAID
What type of drug is EtoGesic (R)?
NSAID - Etodolac
What type of drug is Dermaxx?
NSAID
What two NSAIDS aren't used in veterinary medicine?
Ibuprofen (Advil (R)) and Acetaminophen (Tylenol (R)).
Which antihistamine is effective for "Heaves" in horse?
Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-trimetron (R))
What type of drug is Benadryl (R)?
Antihistamine - Diphenhydramine
What type of drug is Chlor-trimetron (R)?
Antihistamine - Chlorpheniramine
What type of drug is Atarax (R)?
Antihistamine - Hydroxyzine HCL
What type of drug is Seldane (R)?
Antihistamine - Terfendadine
What type of drug is Dramamine (R)?
Antihistamine - Dimenhydrinate
What type of drug is Histavet (R)?
Antihistamine - Pyrilamine Maleate
What type of cell releases histamine?
Mast cells
What are the clinical uses of Antihistamines?
Pruritis, urticaria (hives), laminitis in horses, motion sickness, anaphylactic shock, reverse sneeze syndrome, 'heaves' in horses and upper respiratory tract infections.
What antihistamine has an anti-emetic effect?
Dimenhydrinate - Dramamine (R)
Which antihistamine is inexpensive, causes relaxtion of skeletal muscles, has some ananlgesic effects and less side effects than other AH's?
Hydroxyzine HCL - Atarax(R)
Which antihistamine is somewhat effective for 'heaves' in horses?
Chlorpheniramine - Chlor-trimetron (R)
What do coticosteroids treat?
Infammatory, pruritic, immune-mediated diseases and sometimes shock.
Where are natural steroids produced?
By the adrenal cortex
What are the two major catergories of steroids?
Mineralcorticoids and Glucocorticoids
What are some contraindications for using steroids?
Pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, vaccinations, immature, dehydrated, corneal ulcers, animals with actively healing wounds or with severe infections.
What is the triple "A" effect?
Anti-inflammatory, Anti-pyretic, Analgesic. NSAIDS
What are the advantages of NSAIDS over steroids?
No steroidal side effects (PU/PD/PP), no CNS suppression (can use for analgesia), fewer serious side-effects than those associated with steroids.
What's the most common problem associated with NSAIDS?
Gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration.
What are some disadvantages of NSAIDS?
*Gastrointestional bleeding and ulceration. Blood abnormalities (affect bone marrow), clotting problems, decrease renal blood perfusion (~ hepatotoxicity).
What are the contraindications for NSAID use?
Kidney or liver disease, hypotension or dehydration, thrombocytopenis/clotting disease, GI ulcerative disease, corticosteroid use.
What NSAID is used primarily in Large Animal Medicine?
Phenylbutazole - Butazolidin (R)
What NSAID are cats very sensitvie to and should only be given by Vet prescription?
Acetylsalicylic acid - Asprin, Ecotrin (R)
What NSAID should be used as a one time dose? Why?
Flunixin Megumine - Banamine (R). There is the potential for gastric ulcers and nephrotoxicity.
What NSAID is used as a carrier for other drugs?
Dimethyl sulfoxide - DMSO (R)
What NSAID should never be used in cats? Why?
Acetaminophen - Tylenol (R). One tablet can be fatal.
Symptoms of Acetaminophen (Tylenol (R)) poisoning in cats?
Facial edema, cyanosis, depression, anorexia.
What is a fever?
A change in the temerature set point of the CNS, resulting in elevated core body temperature.
What is a fever?
A change in the temerature set point of the CNS, resulting in elevated core body temperature.
What is hyperthermia?
Change in tempreature due to external causes, the CNS set point is normal. Ex. overheating from the environment - being locked in the car on a hot day.
What are pyrogens?
Chemical agents that raise the CNS set point resulting in fever. Ex. bacteria, viruses, drugs, fungi, immune complexes, leukocyte proteins, and damaged tissue.
What might cause a fever?
Bacteria, viruses, drugs, fungi, immune complexes, leukocyte proteins, damaged tissues.
What drugs are used to treat a fever?
Buffered aspriin (Ecotrin (R)), Phenylbutazone, Banamine (R).
What is a non-drug supportive therapy to treat a fever?
Fluids
What can occur if a fever becomes excessive - over 107 degrees?
Damage to the liver, kidneys and CNS, cardiovascular collapse and shock.
What NSAID is not recommended for use in Small Animal Medicine? Why?
Naproxen - Naprosyn (R), Equiproxen (R). Accurate dosing is difficult and it stays in a dogs plasma 5 times as long as in humans.
Which NSAID will penetrate intact skin and may used topically along with another drug?
Dimethyl sulfoxide - DMSO (R)