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20 Cards in this Set

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Defined as the study of biochemical & physio effects of drugs & the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced (i.e. the study of what drugs DO to the body).
The relationship that determines the miniumum amount of a drug that we can use & the max amount a drug can elicit, plus the amount needed to increase the right doseage.
Dose-Response Relationship
The dose response relationship is considered this in that as the dosage increases, the response progressively becomes larger.
The phase in the dose-response relationship that occurs at low doses; the curve is flat during this phase because the doses are too low to elicit a measureable response.
Phase 1
Defined as the largest effect that a drug can produce, indicated by the "HEIGHT" of the dose relationship curve.
Maximal Efficacy
The phase of the dose-response relationship where we eventually reach a point where an increase in dose is unable to elicit a further increase in response.
Phase 3
The term that refers to the amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect, indicated by the relative position of the dose-relationship curve along the
X(i.e. dosage) axis. Produces its effects at low doses, while implying NOTHING about its maximal effects.
The phase of the dose-response relationship where an increase in dose elicits a corresponding increase in response. It is at this phase where the dose-response relationship is graded.
Phase 2
These are special chemicals in the body that most drugs interact with to produce effects; defined as any functional macromolecule on a cell to which a drug binds to produce its effects.
A receptor must be in the *** configuration to influence cellular function & are activated by interactions with other molecules.
The **** through which drugs act are normal points of control of physiologic processes (REPEAT)
Under physiologic conditions, receptors function in regulated by ****in the body.
All drugs can do at receptors is *** or *** the action of the body's own regulatory molecules.
Mimic or Block
T/F: Because drug action is limited to mimicking or blocking the body's own regulatory molecules, drugs CANNOT give new functions.
T/F: Drugs can only alter the rate of pre-existing processes.
The term that refers to the specific regions of the receptor where binding of drugs & endogenous regulatory molecules take place.
Ligand-Binding Domain
This type of "embedded enzyme" spans the cell membrane, whereas the ligand-binding domain is located on the cell surface & the enzymes catalytic site is inside. Insulin is a good example of an endogenous ligand that acts through this type of receptor.
Cell Membrane-Embedded Enzymes
The function of these receptors is to regulate the flow of ions into & out of the cells. Each ion channel is specific for a particular ion (e.g. Na+, Ca+). When endougenous ligands or angonist drugs binds to the receptor, the channels open, allowing ions to flow inward or outward.
Ligand Gated
Protein coupled receptor systems that have three components: (the receptor, (***protein,(& an effector. The binding of an endogenous ligand or agonist drug activates the receptor, which in turn actives ***protein, which in turn activates the effector.
Receptors consisting of factors that are found within the cell surface(i.e. situated on DNA in the cell nucleus) & the responses are delayed. Their function is to regulate protien synthesis, whereas activation of these receptors by endogenous ligands or angonist drugs stimulates the transciption of mRNA molecules.
Transcription Factors