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34 Cards in this Set

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Malaria is transmitted by what vector?
Anopheles mosquito
What is the hallmark of malaria?
cyclic fevers (q48-72hours)
The "hot" phase lasts several hours and coincides with what?
rupture of schizonts
Diagnosis of malaria
1. blood smears q12-24hours x3 days

2. DNA and RNA probes
Malaria prophylaxis
Chloroquine
Malaria prophylaxis if area of travel has endemic Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale
Add primaquine for 14 days beginning last 2 weeks of chloroquine prophylaxis
Malaria prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine resistant P. falciparum
Mefloquine
Malaria preferred therapy (except P. falciparum)
Chloroquine
Malaria preferred therapy if unable to take PO (except P. falciparum)
Quinidine gluconate until able to take PO quinine
Malaria therapy for P. falciparum
a. Mefloquine
b. Atovaquone
Clinical presentation of Amebiasis
-Bloody diarrhea w/ mucus
-abdominal pain
-liver abscess
Amebiasis diagnosis
1. Eosinophilia usually absent
2. E. histolytica or trophozites in fresh stool
3. ELISA (mabs)
Amebiasis treatment for minimal symptoms
1. Metronidazole
2. Iodoquinol
3. Paromomycin
Amebiasis treatment for moderate to severe symptoms
Metronidazole
FOLLOWED BY:
a. iodoquinol
b. paramomycin
Giardiasis clinical presentation acute and chronic
A: Diarrhea, cramp-like abd.pain

C: Large amounts of stool; foul-smelling, light-colored, and fatty; weight loss; Vitamin ADEK and B12 deficiency
Giardiasis diagnosis
1. fresh stool culture show trophozites
2. preserved stool show cysts
3. MAB
4. Nylon string test
Giardiasis treatment
>8years= metronidazole
<8years= metronidazole (albendazole 2nd line)
Leishmaniasis vector
Sandfly
Leishmaniasis clincial presentation
Visceral, Cutaneous, or mucocutaneous

V: papule which ulcerates -> dissemination -> abd distension, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, chills

C: raised ulcer persists for months to years

M: mutilating infections involve nose, soft palate, trachea
Leishmaniasis diagnosis
Leishmaniasis in TISSUE or BONE
Lesihmaniasis treatment
Sodium stibogluconate
American Trypanosomiasis (Chaga's disease) transmitted by what?
Reduviid bug
American Trypanosomiasis clinical presentation
-Unilateral orbital edema
-Granuloma or Chagoma at site of entry

Chronic:
-cardiomyopathy
-CHF
-CNS dx
-Uncoordinated peristalsis
American Trypanosomiasis diagnosis
1. finding trypanosoma cruzi
2. ELISA
3. Complement fixation
American Trypanosomiasis treatment
Nifurtimox
Helminthic diseases- HOOKWORM clinical presentation
-IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA 2ndary to blood loss and malabsorption of iron
-Abd pain
-diarrhea
HOOKWORM diagonsis
direct fecal smear to examine for eggs
HOOKWORM treatment
a. Albendazole
b. Mebendazole
Helminthic diseases- ASCARIASIS clincial presentation
-Pulmonary sxs
-GI obstruction
-Malabsorption
ASCARIASIS diagnosis
direct fecal smear to examine for eggs
ASCARIASIS treatment
a. Albendazole
b. Mebendazole
Helminthic infections- ENTEROBIASIS clinical presentatio\n
-PERIANAL IRRITATION/ITCHING
-2NDARY BACTERIAL INFECTION
ENTEROBIASIS diagnosis
Perianal swab using scotch tape then examine for eggs
ENTEROBIASIS treatment
a. Pyrantel pamoate
b. Mebendazole
c. Albendazole