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39 Cards in this Set

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Nearly all of this class of antibiotics are renally excreted
beta-lactams
Avoid the use of these hepatotoxic agents in hepatic insufficiency
rifampin/rifabutin, pyrazinamide
Avoid these drugs in myasthenia gravis
aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolones
PCN spectrum of activity
gram +
-strep
-enterococcus
PCN adverse events
seizures (high doses)
Anti-staphylococcal spectrum of activity
gram +
-strep
-MSSA
Anti-staphylococcal adverse events
cholestatic hepatitis
Aminopenicllins spectrum of activity
gram +
-strep, enterococcus, staph, listeria

gram -
-e.coli, proteus, h.influenzae
Aminopenicillins adverse events
diarrhea
Anti-psudeomonal spectrum of activity
gram +
-stap, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-community acquired and nosocomial pathogens

anaerobes
Anti-pseudomonal adverse events
hypokalemia, platelet dysfunction
Beta-lactam/BLI spectrm of activity
gram +
-staph, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-broader community acquired and nosocomial pathogens

enhanced anaerobic coverage
1st gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep

gram -
-e.coli, klebsiella, proteus
2nd gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep (activity vs staph much less than 1st gen)

gram -
-ecoli, klebsiella, proteus, neiseria, moraxella, h.influenzae
3rd gen cephalosporins
spectrum of activity
gram +
-strep

gram -
-community and nosocomial pathogens
4th gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
more active vs gram + organisms than 3rd gen, but has equivalent gram - coverage to 3rd gen

more active vs pseudomona aeruginosa and oral anaerobes
Carbepenem spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-community and nosocomial pathogens

anaerobes
Carbapenams adverese events
seizures; cross allergy w/ pcn
Carbapenams uses
-touch nosocomial infections
-when broad coverage against resistant pathogens is needed
-reserved for patients who have failed other broad-spectrum antibiotics
monobactams (aztreonam) spectrum of activity
aerobic gram - rods only

(similar to aminoglycosides)
Monobactams use
-no empiric indication
-avoidance of nephrotoxicity due to aminoglycosides
Aminoglycosides spectrum of activity
gram +
-synergistic only for staph, strep, and enterococcus

gram -
-aerobic gram - rods
Aminoglycoside adverse events
-nephrotoxicity
-vestibular toxicity
-ototoxicity
-neuromuscular junction blockade
Aminoglycoside uses
adddtional gram - coverage to existing antimicrobial regimen
Fluoroquinolones spectrum of activity
cipro: gram -
-broad spectrum, most active quinolone vs p.aeruginosa
-atypical coverage

levo, moxi,gati, grepa: broad spectrum gram - activity
-good activity vs S.pneumoniae
-atypical coverage
Fluoroquinolones adverse events
CNS effects (seizures, ha), phototoxicity, CI in children
Fluoroquinolone uses
respiratory tract infections, UTIs, some nosocomial infections
Macrolides spectrum of activity
strep, h.influenzae, moraxella

atypical

azithromycin/clarithromycin active vs mycobacteria avium
Macrolide adverse events
gi upset, metallic taste (clarithromycin)
Macrolide uses
-community acquired URIs
-tx of MAC
-otitis media/sinusitis
Metronidazole spectrum of activity
"below the diaphragm" anaerobes
-bacteroides fragilis
-C. diff

certain protozoan pathogens
-giardia
Metronidazole adverse events
metallic taste, peripheral neuropathy (reversible)
Metronidazole uses
-intra-abdominal infections
-C. diff
Clindamycin spectrum of activity
"above the diaphragm" anaerboes
-mainly gram + organisms (s. pneumoniae, enterococcus, s. aureus)
Clindamycin adverse events
diarrhea
-c. diff colitis
Clindamycin uses
-adjunctive coverage for oral anaerboes
-aspiration penumoniae
-cellulitis
-targeted therapy toward susceptible gram + organisms
Vancomycin spectrum of activity
only aerobic gram + organisms
-staph, strep, enterococci
Vancomycin adverse events
-red-man syndrome
-rare ototoxicity
Vancomycin uses
-infections caused by MRSA
-empiric coverage for resistant pathogens in severe infections