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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nearly all of this class of antibiotics are renally excreted
Avoid the use of these hepatotoxic agents in hepatic insufficiency
rifampin/rifabutin, pyrazinamide
Avoid these drugs in myasthenia gravis
aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolones
PCN spectrum of activity
gram +
PCN adverse events
seizures (high doses)
Anti-staphylococcal spectrum of activity
gram +
Anti-staphylococcal adverse events
cholestatic hepatitis
Aminopenicllins spectrum of activity
gram +
-strep, enterococcus, staph, listeria

gram -
-e.coli, proteus, h.influenzae
Aminopenicillins adverse events
Anti-psudeomonal spectrum of activity
gram +
-stap, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-community acquired and nosocomial pathogens

Anti-pseudomonal adverse events
hypokalemia, platelet dysfunction
Beta-lactam/BLI spectrm of activity
gram +
-staph, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-broader community acquired and nosocomial pathogens

enhanced anaerobic coverage
1st gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep

gram -
-e.coli, klebsiella, proteus
2nd gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep (activity vs staph much less than 1st gen)

gram -
-ecoli, klebsiella, proteus, neiseria, moraxella, h.influenzae
3rd gen cephalosporins
spectrum of activity
gram +

gram -
-community and nosocomial pathogens
4th gen cephalosporins spectrum of activity
more active vs gram + organisms than 3rd gen, but has equivalent gram - coverage to 3rd gen

more active vs pseudomona aeruginosa and oral anaerobes
Carbepenem spectrum of activity
gram +
-staph, strep, enterococcus

gram -
-community and nosocomial pathogens

Carbapenams adverese events
seizures; cross allergy w/ pcn
Carbapenams uses
-touch nosocomial infections
-when broad coverage against resistant pathogens is needed
-reserved for patients who have failed other broad-spectrum antibiotics
monobactams (aztreonam) spectrum of activity
aerobic gram - rods only

(similar to aminoglycosides)
Monobactams use
-no empiric indication
-avoidance of nephrotoxicity due to aminoglycosides
Aminoglycosides spectrum of activity
gram +
-synergistic only for staph, strep, and enterococcus

gram -
-aerobic gram - rods
Aminoglycoside adverse events
-vestibular toxicity
-neuromuscular junction blockade
Aminoglycoside uses
adddtional gram - coverage to existing antimicrobial regimen
Fluoroquinolones spectrum of activity
cipro: gram -
-broad spectrum, most active quinolone vs p.aeruginosa
-atypical coverage

levo, moxi,gati, grepa: broad spectrum gram - activity
-good activity vs S.pneumoniae
-atypical coverage
Fluoroquinolones adverse events
CNS effects (seizures, ha), phototoxicity, CI in children
Fluoroquinolone uses
respiratory tract infections, UTIs, some nosocomial infections
Macrolides spectrum of activity
strep, h.influenzae, moraxella


azithromycin/clarithromycin active vs mycobacteria avium
Macrolide adverse events
gi upset, metallic taste (clarithromycin)
Macrolide uses
-community acquired URIs
-tx of MAC
-otitis media/sinusitis
Metronidazole spectrum of activity
"below the diaphragm" anaerobes
-bacteroides fragilis
-C. diff

certain protozoan pathogens
Metronidazole adverse events
metallic taste, peripheral neuropathy (reversible)
Metronidazole uses
-intra-abdominal infections
-C. diff
Clindamycin spectrum of activity
"above the diaphragm" anaerboes
-mainly gram + organisms (s. pneumoniae, enterococcus, s. aureus)
Clindamycin adverse events
-c. diff colitis
Clindamycin uses
-adjunctive coverage for oral anaerboes
-aspiration penumoniae
-targeted therapy toward susceptible gram + organisms
Vancomycin spectrum of activity
only aerobic gram + organisms
-staph, strep, enterococci
Vancomycin adverse events
-red-man syndrome
-rare ototoxicity
Vancomycin uses
-infections caused by MRSA
-empiric coverage for resistant pathogens in severe infections