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21 Cards in this Set

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Somatic motor to target organ:
Receptor?
Neurotransmitter?
Receptor: N1 receptor

Neurotransmitter: ACh
Parasympathetic preganlionic to postganglionic:
Receptor?
Neurotransmitter?
Location?
Receptor: N1 receptor

Neurotransmitter: ACh

Location: Near organ
Sympathetic preganlionic to postganglionic:
Receptor?
Neurotransmitter?
Location?
Receptor: N2 receptor

Neurotransmitter: ACh

Location: Sympathetic chain ganglion
Parasympathetic postganglionic to target organ:
Receptor?
Neurotransmitter?
Receptor: Muscarinic (M1-M5)

Neurotransmitter: ACh
Sympathetic postganglionic to target organ:
Receptor?
Neurotransmitter?
Receptor: α & β adrenergic receptors

Neurotransmitter: Norepinephrine
How many Ach molecules need to bind to activate the N2 receptor?
2 ACh molecules
What second messenger pathway do M1, M3, & M5 receptors affect?
Parasympathetic action:
(1) Gi --> Increase IP3 & DAG
What second messenger pathway do M2 & M4 receptors affect?
Parasympathetic action:
(1) Gi --> Decrease cAMP
Stimulation of of vascular smooth muscle by ACh?
Innervation?
Stimulation of of vascular smooth muscle by ACh:
(1) ACh-> M3 receptor (endothelial cell)-> IP3/DAG increase-> NO (nitric oxide)-> Smooth muscle-> Guanylate cyclase (activation)-> SMC relaxation & dilation of blood vessel (early)
(2) VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide)-> VIP receptor (SMC)-> Decrease Ca2+-> SMC relaxation & dilation of blood vessel (longer term stimulation)

Innervation: There is NO parasympathetic innervation of the vasculature
What second messenger pathway do β2 adrenergic receptors affect?
Sympathetic action:
(1) Gs --> Increase cAMP levels
What second messenger pathway do β1 adrenergic receptors affect?
Sympathetic action:
(1) Gs --> Increase cAMP levels
(2) Cardiac & skeletal muscle: Direct stimulation of V-gated Ca2+ channels
β1 adrenergic receptor stimulation results in these physiological changes:
Sympathetic action:
(1) Increase HR []
(2) Increase myocardial contractility
(3) Increase renin release
(4) Increase lipolysis
(5) Relaxation of SMC [phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase to inactive form]
β2 adrenergic receptor stimulation results in these physiological changes:
Systemic?
Eye?
Other?
Sympathetic systemic action:
(1) Bronchodilation
(2) Increase lipolysis
(3) Increase liver gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis
(4) Increase glucagon
(5) Relax SMC in uterus, GIT, & genitourinary tract

Eye:
(1) Increase aqueous humor production by cilliary body

Other:
(1) Inhibit histamine release
β3 adrenergic receptor:
What second messenger pathway is used?
Stimulation results in what physiological changes?
Sympathetic action:
(1) Gq --> Increase IP3/DAG

Sympathetic action:
(1) Increase lipolysis in adipose tissue
What second messenger pathway do α1 adrenergic receptors affect?
Sympathetic action:
(1) Gq --> Increase IP3/DAG
What second messenger pathway do α1 adrenergic receptors affect?
Sympathetic action:
(1) Gi --> Decrease cAMP
α1 adrenergic receptor stimulation results in these physiological changes:
Sympathetic action:
(1) Vasoconstriction [Increase resistance & BP]
(2) Increase liver gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis
(3) Increased closure of internal sphincter of the bladder
(4) Relaxation of GIT SMC [Increased Ca2+ cause hyperpol and relax of Ca2+ dependent K+ channels]
α2 adrenergic receptor stimulation results in these physiological changes:
Sympathetic action:
(1) Decrease insulin
(2) Mainly inhibitory responses

Note: Many α2 receptors found within the brain
Sympathetic stimulation of of vascular smooth muscle.
(1) ATP-> Purinoceptor (cation channel that allows Ca2+ & Na+ in)-> SMC contraction (rapid)

(2) Norepinephrine-> α1 receptors-> Increase IP3/DAG -> Increase Ca2+-> SMC contraction (intermediate)

(3) Neuropeptide Y-> Y1 receptor-> Increase Increase Ca2+ (unknown mechanism)-> SMC contraction (slow response)
What is the β-adrenergic receptors have the potency series for different agonists:
isoproterenol > epinephrine ≥ norepinephrine

β1 & β3: Approximately equal affinity for epinephrine and norepinephrine

β2: Higher affinity for epinephrine than for norepinephrine.
What is the α-adrenergic receptors have the potency series for different agonists:
Epinephrine ≥ norepinephrine >> isoproterenol