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34 Cards in this Set

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Thiazide diuretics work by _ in the _.

The main example of this type of drug is _
inhibiting NaCl contransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

HydrocloroTHIAZIDE
The first line therapy for most hypertensive patients is _.

Side effects include _
A thiazide diuretic such as HydrocloroTHIAZIDE.

hypokalemia and hypercalcemia
_, although is used as the first line therapy in most hypertensive patients is contraindicated in patients who have renal dysfunction.
Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide, although is used as the first line therapy in most hypertensive patients is contraindicated in patients who have_
renal dysfunction.

This drug acts on the NaCl cotransporter found in the distal convoluted tubule, as well as induces PG E production (which enhances renal profusion).
_ diuretics are indicated in patients with renal compromise, and are good for edema, but not very good for hypertension.
Loop diuretics (ie Furosemide)

- These diuretics inhibit the Na/K/2Cl transporter found in the thick ascending loop of henle
Furosemide is a _ diuretic. Where is it's site of action?
loop diuretic

It inhibits the Na/K/2Cl transporter found in the thick ascending loop of henle
What are some side effects of Furosemide?
Furosemide is a loop diuretic that acts on the Na/K/2Cl transporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle.

Side effects include hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, metabolic alkalosis ----Electrolyte Imbalance!
In a patient who has poor renal function, _ is ineffective, but _ is effective.
Hydrochlorothiazide (a thiazide diuretic acting on the distal convoluted tubule Na/Cl) is ineffective.

Furosemide (a loop diuretic acting on the thick ascending loop of henle Na/K/2Cl) is indicated in these patients
The primary Potassium sparing diuretic is _. This inhibits _ reabsorption in the _
Spironolactone

Aldosterone and therefore Na reabsorption in the Collecting Duct

It is used as an adjunct with other diuretics
Spironolactone is a _ diuretic.

What are some of it's side effects?
K sparing diuretic.

It inhibits Aldosterone, and therefore Na reabsorption in the collecting duct, it is used as an adjunct with other diuretics

Side effects include Hyperkalemia, and gynecomastia (therefore, in males, you should Rx Eplerenone instead for K sparing)
The use of beta blockers can mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia, except one. What is it?
Sweating

Hypoglycemia triggers a sympathetic response and therefore most symptoms are blocked except sweating which uses cholinergic fibers, despite being SANS mediated
Beta blockers are indicated for patients with _

What are some side effects of beta blockers?
coexisting conditions such as an MI, angina pectoris, CHF.

Side effects include decreased libido, hypotension, bradycardia, increased triglycerides and cholesterol.
The primary Non selective Beta blocker is _. It is contraindicated in _ patients.
PropranOLOL

asthmatics, because it causes bronchoconstriction.
Abrupt discontinuation of propanolol will cause _
First of all, you must know that propanOLOL is a beta blocker.

Abrupt discontinuation of beta blockers causes reflex tachycardia, increased BP, and nervousness.
What are examples of selective Beta 1 blockers?
AtenOLOL, MetoprOLOL, AcebutOLOL.

(All beta blockers end in OLOL) Selective beta 1 blockers - AMA
All ACE inhibitors end in - _. The two main examples are _. These drugs are indicated in patients with _
-PRIL

EnalaPRIL
captoPRIL
What Anti HTN class is indicated for patients with diabetes?
ACE inhibitors. (enalaPRIL, captoPRIL). These drugs prevent the formation of angiotensin II, reducing Na and water retention, therefore lowering BP. They help slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy d/t PG formation and vasodilation in kidney vascular efferents
What anti HTN class is indicated for patients who have renal compromise?
Loop diuretics such as Furosemide. These inhibit the Na/K/2Cl transporter in the thick ascending loop of henle
_ are contraindicated in pateints with bilateral renal artery stenosis
ACE inhibitors (and Renin Inhibitors).

This includes enelaPRIL, captoPRIL, and Aliskiren (renin inhibitor)
LoSARTAN and valSARTAN block _. They are contraindicated in _
These are both ARB's, and block Angiotensin II Receptors.

They are contraindicated in pregnancy and hyperkalemia.
What are the examples for Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers?
ARbs include losARtan, and valsARtan.

(both end in SARTAN, but remember the AR in ARBs)
Losartan and Valsartan are indicated for _. What do they do?
mild hypertension, heart failure, diabetic nephrotoxicity.

They block ATII receptors at the At - 1 receptor, therefore inhibiting aldosterone secretion. Results in vasodilation and reduction in TPR.
What are examples of Calcium channel antagonists?
Nifedipine and Verapamil
What is the MOA for Aliskiren?
It is a renin inhibitor. It inhibits the conversion of angiotensinogen to angI.

This is usually given with a thiazide diuretic
_ is indicated in patients with angina, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, asthma, and older patients
Ca Channel antagonists, such as Nifedipine and Verapamil
_ is used for symptomatic relief of BPH
A1 adrenergic antagonist (PRAZOSIN)
_ and _ can be indicated in hypertensive emergencies and pheochromocytoma.
LabetaLOL and carvediLOL These are both Alpha 1 and beta antagonists.

They decrease HR and contractility by inhibiting beta receptors, and cause vasodilation and decrease TPR via alpha receptors
Patient comes into the ER with a BP of 195/130 acute target organ injury. What should you prescribe?
The patient is in a hypertensive emergency, and needs LABETALOL OR CARVEDILOL
Nitroprusside can cause _
cyanide toxicity. it is rapidly acting and works via increasing cGMP and causing arteriole and venous dilation

(This is a vasodilator along with hydralazine and minoxidil)
Vasodilators include _, _, and _
hydralazine, minoxidil, and sodium nitroprusside
Centrally acting sympathomimetic agents include _ and _.
Clonidine and Methyldopa
Clonidine has direct action on _ receptors resulting in a _
alpha 2 receptors

decrease in TPR
_ and _ are contraindicated in pregnancy. However, _ , _ and _ are widely used
ACE inhibitors (PRILs) and ARBS (-sARtans).

Methyldopa, Hydralazine, and Ca Channel Blockers (nifedipine, and verapamil)
Diabetics are often prescribed _ and _ to control BP and slow renal deterioration
ACE inhibitors (-PRILS)

ARBs (sARtans)