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39 Cards in this Set

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additives in aerosols
1)Preservatives
2)propellants
3)surfactants
4)carrier agents with dry powder inhalants
Preservative and ph adjuster in the neb
1)benzalkonium chloride
2)sulfuric acid
Propellant and dispersing agent in the MDI
1)chloroflourocarbons
2)oleic acid is the dispersing agent
Enteral
Route of administration referring to the small intestine
First pass effect
If a drug is highly metabolized by the liver enzymes and is administered orally, most of the drug's activity will be terminated in its passage through the liver before it ever reaches the general circulation and the rest of the body.
Routes that avoid first pass metabolism
1)injection
2)sublingual
3)transdermal
4)rectal
5)inhalation
Factors in the time-plasma curve
kinetic factors of:
1) absorption
2)DISTRIBUTION
3)metabolism
4)elimination
Inhaled aerosols
are deposited on the surface of the upper or lower airway, and are considered topical
2)are intended for local or systemic effect
L/t ratio
1)Quantifies the efficiency of drug aerosol delivery to the lung, and is based on the distibution to the airway and gastrointestinal tract
2)proportion of the drug available to the lung, out of the total systemically available drug
3)Any action that reduces the swallowed portion of the inhaled drug, such as resovoir device, can increase the L/t ratio
4)perfectly efficient aerosol would have an L/t ratio of 1
Total systemic drug level
1)Is due to airway absorption, plus the amount absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
What determines the L/t ratio?
1)by the rate of first pass metabolism, and the efficiency of the inhalation device in placing the drug in the airway
Two drugs with the same first pass metabolism_______
can have different l/t ratios even if the airway deposition or delivery device is the same
Systemic effects depend on
1)the amount of active drug absrobed into the system
2)the reactivity of the drug in the oropharnx
pharmacodynamic phase
the mechanism of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effects on the body
Most drugs exert their effects by___
binding to protein targets, and sunsequently modulating the normal function of these proteins
-relevant protein targets include receptors, enzymes, ion channels, and carrier molecules
Catecholamines are metabolized by____
COMT
Albuterol is metabolized by
substrate conjugation
transmembrane signalling for glucocorticoid, such as inhaled flunisolide or oral prednisone
diffuses across the cell membrane and attaches to a receptor in the cytoplasm. Complex binds to GRE, which intiates or represses transcription
Three main compenents of G protein linked receptors
1)drug receptor
2)G protein
3)effector system
Stages of G protein interactions
1)Drug couples to the receptor at the site surrounded by the transmembrane regions of the cell
2)receptor then activates a g protein on the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane
G proteins are so called because____
They are a family of guanine nucelotide binding proteins
Beta receptors and GS proteins
Beta receptors couple with beta-adrenergic receptors, and activate GS proteins
Potency
Refers to the dose or concentration at which the drug will produce 50 percent of the desired effect
Maximal effect
The greatest reponse that can be produced by a drug, a dose above which no further reponse can be elicted
two drugs can have the same potency but different____
Maximal responses
ED 50 on a therapeutic index curve
Dose at which half of the subjects improve
LD 50 on a therapeutic index curve
Lethal dose for 50 percent of the test population
Chemical anatagonism
a direct chemical interaction between a drug and a biologic mediator
Functional antagonism
Can occur when two drugs each produce an effect, but the effects cancel each other out.
Competitive antagonism
Occurs when a drug has an affinity for a receptor, but no efficacy, and at the same time blocks the active agonist from binding to and stimulating the receptor
pharmacogenetics
The study of hereditary or genetic differences
Stability
Describes the tendency of aerosol particles to remain in suspension
Aerosol
suspension of liquid orsolid particles
Stability
Describes the tendency pf particles to remain in suspension
Penetration
Refers to the depth within the lung reached by the particles
Deposition
Process of particles depositing out of suspension to remain in the lung
count mode
the most frequently occuring particle size in a distribution
count median diameter
The particle size above and beyond which fifty percent of the particles are found
Mass median diameter
the particle size above and below which fifty percent of the mass of the particles is found