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12 Cards in this Set

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What are the four types of oral hypoglycemics?
SULFONYLUREAS (+insulin release)
BIGUANIDES (-gluconeogenesis)
GLITAZONES (-insulin resistance)
ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS (-carb absorption)
METFORMIN class?
BIGUANIDE (decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis)
METFORMIN clinical?
DM II
METFORMIN side effects?
GI distress
NOT predisposed to hypoglycemia
Lactic Acidosis
METFORMIN contraindications?
Renal Insufficiency (-drug clearance)
Hepatic Dysfunction (-lactate clearance)
What is the name of an older biguanide withdrawn from US market due to high incidence of lactic acidosis?
PHENFORMIN
GLYBURIDE class?
SULFONYLUREA (+insulin release)
GLYBURIDE mechanism?
Enhances insulin release from pancreatic Beta islet cells via:

inhibit ATP K+ channel -> -K+ efflux -> membrane depolarization -> opening of voltage gated Ca+ channels -> Ca influx -> insulin release
GLYBURIDE clinical?
DM II
GLYBURIDE side effects?
Hypoglycemia
GLYBURIDE metabolism?
PO
Hepatic metabolism
Renal excretion
METFORMIN metabolism?
PO
Renal excretion