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29 Cards in this Set

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Penicillin antibiotic used to treat gram negative, gram positive and anaerobic infections
Ampicillin
1st generation cephalosporin commonly used to treat skin and urinary tract infections
Cephalexin
2nd generation cephalosporin used to treat lower respiratory tract, intra-abdominal, skin, and bone infections caused by gram negative, gram positive, and anaerobic bacteria.
Loracarbef
Antibiotic commonly used to treat urinary tract infections and acne
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Flouroquinolone used to treat upper and lower respiratory tract and GU infections whose bioavailability is dramatically decreased with antacids.
Ofloxacin
Class of antibiotic used to treat a variety of gram negative and gram positive infections (primarily lower respiratory tract and UTI) which is associated with arthropathy, myalgia and leg cramps in children under 18.
Fluoroquinolones (eg Lomafloxacin)
Well tolerated macrolide antibiotic. Main side effects are nausea and abdominal pain.
Azithromycin.
Antiprotozoal and antibacterial associated with convulsive seizures and peripheral neuropathy. Also produces a disulfiram-like reaction with alcohol.
Metronidazole.
Antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis and Neisseria Meningitidis (carrier state). Associated with hepatotoxicity, hyperbilirubinemia, porphyria.
Rifampin.
Antibiotic known to cause phototoxicity, pseudotumor cerebri, and maculopapular rashes.
Tetracycline.
Diuretic that inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule.
Acetazolamide.
Diuretic that inhibits the reabsorption of NaCl in the early distal tubule.
Hydrochorothiazide.
Loop diuretic that inhibits the Na+/2Cl-/K+ transporter in the thick ALH.
Furosemide.
Osmotic diuretic. Contraindicated in anuria.
Mannitol.
Potassium-sparing diuretic. Contraindicated in renal failure.
Spironolactone.
Long acting insulin analogs.
Glargine, Detemir.
Rapid acting insulins used prior to meal.
Lispro, Aspart.
Action by increasing glucose uptake into cells, glycogen and FA synthesis. Onset within 15 minutes, duration 3-4 hours.
Intermediate acting insulin.
NPH. Onset: 2-4 hours, duration: 10-16 hours.
Insulin that begins to act within 2-4 hours and lasts 18-24 hours, with no peak.
Glargine.
Insulin that starts acting within 15 minutes and lasts 3-4 hours.
Lispro, Aspart.
Diabetes medication that sensitizes tissues to insulin (esp. liver)
Metformin.
Diabetes medications that stimulate insulin secretion.
Sulfonuylureas and Meglitinides: Tolbutamide, Glyburide, Glipizide, Glimepiride, Repaglinide, Nateglinide.
Deiabetes medications that block carbohydrate absorption.
Acarbose, Miglitol. (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors)
SFx: gas, abdominal discomfort. Contraindicated with IBD or cirrhosis.
Diabetes medications that sensitize muscle and adipose to insulin.
Thiazoladindiones (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone) and Biguanides.
Action and side-effects of Sulfonylureas.
Increase insulin secretion by inhibiting K+ channels in beta cells - prolonged depolarization and increased Ca2+ influx. (can decrease fasting glc by 60-70 mg/dL; A1C by 1-2%) SFx: hypoglycemia, weight gain. Least expensive.
Action and side effects of Biguanides.
Increase hepatic glucose production and increase insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake. Reduce A1C by 1-2%. SFx: diarrhea, lactic acidosis, small decrease in LDL and TG, no weight gain, Contraindicated in impaired renal fx. Example: Metformin
Action and side effects of Thiazolidinediones.
Decrease insulin resistance. (involves PPAR - mechanism unclear). Reduce A1C 0.5 - 1%. SFx: weight gain, edema, hypoglycemia. Contraindicated with abn liver fx, CHF. Improves HDL and TG.
Medication that slows gastric emptying, suppresses glucagon secretion, lowers post-prandial blood sugars.
Amylin analogues (Pramlintide, Symlin)
Medication that enhances glucose dependent insulin secretion in response to food.
Incretin mimetics (exenatide, Byetta) Exenatide has 50% overlap with human GLP-1.