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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what happens to total body water with age
decreases with age. for water soluble drugs volume of distribution decreases with decreased body water. for fat soluble drugs volume of distribution increases with decreased body water.
does anything happen to renal function by age 50?
25% of renal function is lost.
what happens to excretion with age
neonates and infants: not well developed. elderly: excretion is beginning to fall apart. therefore higher than adult drug concentrations.
what is therapeutic index
lethal dose 50/effective dose 50.
what differences do you see between the sexes for physiological variables
mean body weight, total body water, and fat. you should worry about obese people and lean males
what are the two types of tolerance
pharmacodynamic (tolerance at the level of tissue acted upon) and pharmacokinetic (tolerance because of increased breakdown)
what are the two types of desensitization
they are examples of pharmacodynamic tolerance. homologous desensitization: tolerance at one receptor. heterologous desensitization: tolerance that affects more than one receptor (tolerance later on in the signaling cascade that's common to both receptors)
what are three ways that homologuous desensitization happens
covalent modification (e.g. beta arrestin prevents G protein binding), destruction of receptor, internalization
what does a deficient G-6PD do
don't make enough NADPH which is used to keep glutathione in reduced form. no NADPH RBC rupture if given drugs that used up glutathione reductase.
what does a deficient plasma cholinesterase do
it is a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker that is usually short acting which is good for surgery. deficient plasma cholinesterase = longer respiratory help after surgery cause succinylocholine lasts too long.
what does the distribution curve for acetylation speed look like
bimodal distribution for slow and fast acetylators
who is more likely to have G6PD deficiency
sephardic male jews, black americans
summation definition
additive effect definition but don't have to have the same mechanism of action
additive effect definition
used in those cases where the combined effect of two drugs acting by the same mechanism is equal to what you'd expect after simple addition
synergism
joint effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. the major problem for drug interactions instead of additive effects or synergism
when and where can drugs interact
drug bottle, during absorption, plasma protein binding, receptor level at cells, biotransformation, kidney excretion, etc