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389 Cards in this Set

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occurs when one antiinfetive agents effect is diminished by the addition of another chemical (opposite of synergism)
antagonism
substances that supress or destry infective organisms
antiinfectives
substances that supress or destroy bacteria
antibacterials
substances produced by MICROORGANIMS that supress, destroy or alter the action of organisms
antibiotics
substances that supress or destroy microorganims
antimicrobials
substances that supress or destroy fungal organims
antifungals
subtances that supress or destroy viruses
antivirals
substances that actually destroy bacteria (irrevesible)
bacteriacidals
substances that only retard bacterial growth
bacteriostatics
antibiotics are antiinfectives, T or F?
True, but not all antiinfectives are antibiotics
direct or indirect invasion by microbes; doesn't always mean disease present
infection
natural or acquired ability of an organism to withstand an antiifective agent
resistance
narrow or acquired ability of an antiinfective against groups of microorganisms
spectrum
the growth of a group of microorganims different from the original infective agents
superinfetion
the ability of 2 or more antiinfectives to increase efficacy of either or both (opposite of antagnism)
synergism
the best way to treat an ifection is to ?
establish drainage
what are the 3 reasons antiinfectives would be used in dentistry?
1. prophylactic premedication

2. localized dental infection or cellulitis (infection has spread from original area)

3. periodontal disease
If I'm choosing an antiinfective to use, what 6 criteria would my decision be based on?
1. organism type causing infection

2. how senstive the organism is to the antiinfective

3. status of the hosts imune system

4. will patient develop hypersensitiity to infective agent

5. will patient take the medicine

6. drug interactions
the best way to treat an ifection is to ?
establish drainage
what are the 3 reasons antiinfectives would be used in dentistry?
1. prophylactic premedication

2. localized dental infection or cellulitis (infection has spread from original area)

3. periodontal disease
the most popular class of antiinfectives
penicillins
If I'm choosing an antiinfective to use, what 6 criteria would my decision be based on?
1. organism type causing infection

2. how senstive the organism is to the antiinfective

3. status of the hosts imune system

4. will patient develop hypersensitiity to infective agent

5. will patient take the medicine

6. drug interactions
narrow spectrum antiinfective that kills some gram +/- cocci, some spirochetes (syphillis) an anaerobes (deep pockets no O2)
Penicillin
the most popular class of antiinfectives
penicillins
- common dental antiinfective
- bacteriacidal that disrupts the production of bacteria cell walls
- usually administered orally but also IM or IV
penicillin
the best way to treat an ifection is to ?
establish drainage
narrow spectrum antiinfective that kills some gram +/- cocci, some spirochetes (syphillis) an anaerobes (deep pockets no O2)
Penicillin
- bacterial resistance with increased frequency of use

- distributed to most body tissues like saliva, breast milk and transplacental

- DOES NOT distribute into CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) or Bone
Penicillin
what are the 3 reasons antiinfectives would be used in dentistry?
1. prophylactic premedication

2. localized dental infection or cellulitis (infection has spread from original area)

3. periodontal disease
- common dental antiinfective
- bacteriacidal that disrupts the production of bacteria cell walls
- usually administered orally but also IM or IV
penicillin
If I'm choosing an antiinfective to use, what 6 criteria would my decision be based on?
1. organism type causing infection

2. how senstive the organism is to the antiinfective

3. status of the hosts imune system

4. will patient develop hypersensitiity to infective agent

5. will patient take the medicine

6. drug interactions
an enzye that destroys penicillin
penicillinase
the most popular class of antiinfectives
penicillins
- bacterial resistance with increased frequency of use

- distributed to most body tissues like saliva, breast milk and transplacental

- DOES NOT distribute into CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) or Bone
Penicillin
Large doses of penicillin are not recommended becuse toxicity to penicillin is common, T or F?
False
an enzye that destroys penicillin
penicillinase
narrow spectrum antiinfective that kills some gram +/- cocci, some spirochetes (syphillis) an anaerobes (deep pockets no O2)
Penicillin
What is the most common adverse reaction asscociated with penicillin?
Hypersensitivity
If you experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to penicillin what symptoms would you exhibit?
rash, edema, stomatitis (canker sores), delayed hypersensitiity (up to 2 wks after) and anaphylaxis (severe infection)
what antiinfective exhibits moniliasis/candiniasis (oral yeast) as a superinfection?
penicillin
Large doses of penicillin are not recommended becuse toxicity to penicillin is common, T or F?
False
- common dental antiinfective
- bacteriacidal that disrupts the production of bacteria cell walls
- usually administered orally but also IM or IV
penicillin
The prototype of penicillin is?
Penicillin G
What is the most common adverse reaction asscociated with penicillin?
Hypersensitivity
- bacterial resistance with increased frequency of use

- distributed to most body tissues like saliva, breast milk and transplacental

- DOES NOT distribute into CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) or Bone
Penicillin
similar to pen G but produces higher blood levels
Pen V
an enzye that destroys penicillin
penicillinase
If you experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to penicillin what symptoms would you exhibit?
rash, edema, stomatitis (canker sores), delayed hypersensitiity (up to 2 wks after) and anaphylaxis (severe infection)
Principen is an Amoxicillin, T or F?
False, its a Ampicillin
Large doses of penicillin are not recommended becuse toxicity to penicillin is common, T or F?
False
what antiinfective exhibits moniliasis/candiniasis (oral yeast) as a superinfection?
penicillin
What is the most common adverse reaction asscociated with penicillin?
Hypersensitivity
The prototype of penicillin is?
Penicillin G
If you experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to penicillin what symptoms would you exhibit?
rash, edema, stomatitis (canker sores), delayed hypersensitiity (up to 2 wks after) and anaphylaxis (severe infection)
what antiinfective exhibits moniliasis/candiniasis (oral yeast) as a superinfection?
penicillin
The prototype of penicillin is?
Penicillin G
similar to pen G but produces higher blood levels
Pen V
Principen is an Amoxicillin, T or F?
False, its a Ampicillin
similar to pen G but produces higher blood levels
Pen V
Principen is an Amoxicillin, T or F?
False, its a Ampicillin
Principen and Amoxicilin brands Trimox ad Augmentin are all what form of Penicillins?
Ampicillins
Ampicilins have a wider range of action, produce higher blood levels and require less frequent dosing than regular Penicillin, T or F?
True
Where is penicillin metabolized? Where is it excreted?
Metabolized: liver
Excreted: kidneys
How long is the half life (time it takes for half of the drug to leave the bloodstream) of penicillin?
30 minutes
group of broad spectrum antibiotic antiinfectives
macrolides
Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, and Azithromycin (z pac) are generic names for this group of antiinfectives
Macrolides
these antiinfectives have a spectrum similar to penicillins EXCEPT they are ineffective against dental ANAEROBES
Macrolides
these antibiotics are used in patients with penicillin hyoersensitivity
macrolides
macrolides are bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal

they work by interference with protein synthesis
macrolides
the half life of macrolides is?
2 hours
why are macrolides enteric-coated?
degraded by gastric acids

also administered IM and IV
where are macrolides metabolized? where are they excreted?
metabolized: liver
excreted: urine and feces
what might be the reason a patient is nonompliant when precribed Arythocin?
This name brand produces lots of gastointestinal side effects

Macrolides cause the most gastroitestinal upset
these 2 newer bacteriostatic macrolides have some efficacy against some anaerobes and have fewer gastrointestinal effects
Azithromycin and Clarithromycin
Diogoxin, Cyclosporin, Theeophylline and Warfarin serum levels may increase if you take these antiinfectives
Macrolides
the 2 main prescribed macrolides
biaxin and azithromycin (z pac)
broad spectrum bacteriostatic antiinfectives that interfere with bacteria protein synthesis are called?
tetracylines
cause intrinsic staining of teeth and bones
tetracyclines
when administered orally, what happens when tetracyclines are chleated by calcium-containing products in the body?
it binds with the calcium and just goes out of the body; no drug effect
What is the drug of choice for premedicating patients with a heart murmur, prothesis or RHD?

What dose is given?
penicillin (Amoxicillin: Trimox)

2grams (2,000mg) 1 hour before appt. (1,000 mg for kids)

250/500 mg tablets 4 tablets
what drug is given to premedicatted patients?

what dose is given?
Clindamycin

600 mg 1 hour before appt

150 mg x 4
what is the half life of tetracyclines?
2 hours
what is the tissue distrubution of tetracyclines? where is it especially concentrated?
saliva, breast milk, transplacental, and crevicular fluid

found especially in creviculr fluid
anorexia is an adverse reaction of tetracycline, T or F?
True
tetracylines are concentrated in the __ then excreted into the intestines via __ leading to ___ circulation which prolongs activity
liver
bile
enterohepatic
Tetracyclines effect fully gron teeth, not developing ones, T or F?
False, effects dev. teeth only
Tetracycline forms Doxycycline and Minocycline are excreted in ___.
urine
life threatening condition that causes the intstinal lining to slough off, leaving dead epithelial tissue unable to absorb water or food
psuedomembranous collitis
taking tetracycline is contraindicated (not adviseable) in second half of pregnancy thru age 8, T or F?
True
hypersensitivity to tetracyclines is common, T or F
False
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
tetracycline is antagonistic or synergic to other bactericidal antiinfectives?
antagonistic
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
what 3 tetracyclines are used in the clinic for periodontal disease?
1. Periochip - not derived from tetracycline

2. Arestin - minocycline

3. Atridox - Doxycycline
what is the result of using outdated tetracylines?

what is the result of IV use with tetracyclines?
kidney damage

liver damage

other effects include anemia, photosensitivity and vertigo
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
antiinfective not indicated (recommended) for prophylactic (preventive) use against BE (bacterial endocarditis) unless the infective agent (what's in the pocket) is Aa (actinomytosis)
tetracyclines
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
used if ALLERGIC to penicillin

used if patient HYPERSENSITIVE to penicillin
Clindamycin

Macrolides
bacteriostatic antibiotic agent against gram + some - and anaerobic bacetroides
clindamycin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
good antiinfective; interferes with protein synthesis
clydamycin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
brand name of clydamycin
Cleosin
what is the half-life of clyndamycin
2.5 hours
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
where is clydamycin metabolized? where is it excreted?
liver

excreted in urine and feces
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
___ is antagonistic to erythromycin by competing for the same binding sites
clyndamycin
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
Adverse reactions include GI (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and psuedomembranous collitis) superinfecion ny monilia, allergy, low blood counts and some liver and kidney dysfunction
clindamycin
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
used frequently in perio disease, premed drug when pen allergy, should not be prescribed with macrolides
clindaycin
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
SYNTHETIC antiinfective active against Trichomonas, amebicidal ad bacteriacidal against some obligate anaerobes
metronidazole
brand name of metrondinazole
Flagyl
this antiinfective works by destroying the ring structure of DNA
metronidazole
this antiinfective also has an anti-inflamatory effect
metronidazole
what is the half life of metronidazole?
8 hours
antiinfective concentrated in crevicular fluid, less in CSF, saliva and breast milk
metronidazole/flagyl
antiinfective with adverse reactions to the GI, xerostomia, metallic taste, CNS and renal toxicity
metronidazole/flagyl
drinking alcohol within 48 hrs makes you extremely sick if combined with this antiinfective
metronidazole/flagyl
this antiinfective is good for perio because its concentrated in crevicular fluid and treats perio anaerobes except Aa
metroidazole/flagyl
anesthetics affect (larger or smaller)NONmyelinated nerves first then affect (larger or smaller) myelinated nerves last
smaller

larger
anesthetics affect nerves at the opening between myelinated sheaths called
Nodes of Ranvier
Which one of these properties of a local anesthetic is NOT ideal?

1. potency

2. reversible

3. not toxic, no local reaction or systemic adverse effects

4. rapid onset

5. adequate duration

6. long shelf life

7. low cost

8. toxic metabolites

9. ease of excretion
8: non-toxic metabolites
toxicity of anesthetics affects what 2 systems?
CNS and cardiovascular
brand names of cephlosporins
Keflex and Ceclor
wide spectrum antibiotic with actions similar to penicillin; works on many organisms involved in oral infections especially anaerobes
cephlosporins
half life varies from 1 to 6 hours
ceplosporins
where are cephlosporins metabolized? where are they excreted?
liver

urine
useful for infections by microbes resistant to penicillin
cephlosporins
these 2 medications are the 2 most frequently used antituberculosis agents
isoniazid and rifamin
why so you need to take TB drugs for long periods of time?
they are capable of producing spores which makes them very resistant
which 2 antituberculosis agents are bacteriostatic?

which 2 are bacteriocidal?
rifampin and ethambutol

isonizid and pyrazinamide
which antiuberculosis agent is effective on slow growing infections and also if no other agents can be used
ethambutol
antituberculosis agent taken only for 2 months or until a negative sputnum samples
pyrazinamide
antituberculosis agent used alone as a prophylactic agent to those recently exposed to Tb or serconverts
Isoniazid
Antituberculosis agent that inhibits DNA and RNA enzymes
rifampin
Lamisil and Nizoral are 2 brand names for this group of Antifugal agent

used for vaginal suppository and oral rinse/candida
Nystatin
this group of antifungal agenst are poorly absorbed thru the skin, mucosa or Gi

they are genrally used as a topical treatment for 10 to 14 days and have few adverse effects
Nystatins
This group of antifungals are SYNTHETIC available in creams, ointments and lozenges

they alter cell wall permeability; adverse GI reactions
Imidazoles
this drug given as a lozenge for stubborn candida; its very toxic to the liver and shouldn't be taken for more than 2 weeks at a time
ketoconazole
this antifungal drug can cause multiple digits (oligodactyly), webbed fingers and toes (syndactyly) and embryotoxicity if given during pregnancy
kertoconazole
these 2 antifungals have little dental use and are used for serious systemic fungal disease (athletes foot)
griseofulvin and amphotericin
Zovirax is a brand name
anti___ used topically to treat fever blisters (herpes simplex I or II)

the generic name is___
antiviral

acyclovir
this systemic antiviral is taken orally for herpes
Valtrex
What are the 3 types of inhibitors found in HIV agents
1. nucleoside

2. non nucleoside

3. protease
what ate the adverse effects of HIV agents?
GI, CNS and bone marrow supression
how do antivirals work?
they inhibit the DNA/RNA synthesis
What are the adverse effects of local anesthetics?
1. Toxicity of 2 systems
CNS: initial-restlesness, tremors convulsions
CNS: depression, coma, death
C-V: myocardial depression, fatal arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)

2. Malignant hyperthermia (local)
GENETIC reaction, Ca goes up, rigid muscles, acidosis and elevated body temp

3. Allergic reaction
RARE to amides, more common with esters ranges from rash to anaphylactic shock
common vasoconstrictor found in anesthetic carpule
epinephrine; keeps anesthetic in local area for a long time
common concentration found in carpule
2-3% with or without vasoconstrictor
Antituberculosis agent that inhibits DNA and RNA enzymes
rifampin
Lamisil and Nizoral are 2 brand names for this group of Antifugal agent

used for vaginal suppository and oral rinse/candida
Nystatin
this group of antifungal agenst are poorly absorbed thru the skin, mucosa or Gi

they are genrally used as a topical treatment for 10 to 14 days and have few adverse effects
Nystatins
This group of antifungals are SYNTHETIC available in creams, ointments and lozenges

they alter cell wall permeability; adverse GI reactions
Imidazoles
this drug given as a lozenge for stubborn candida; its very toxic to the liver and shouldn't be taken for more than 2 weeks at a time
ketoconazole
this antifungal drug can cause multiple digits (oligodactyly), webbed fingers and toes (syndactyly) and embryotoxicity if given during pregnancy
kertoconazole
these 2 antifungals have little dental use and are used for serious systemic fungal disease (athletes foot)
griseofulvin and amphotericin
Zovirax is a brand name
anti___ used topically to treat fever blisters (herpes simplex I or II)

the generic name is___
antiviral

acyclovir
this systemic antiviral is taken orally for herpes
Valtrex
What are the 3 types of inhibitors found in HIV agents
1. nucleoside

2. non nucleoside

3. protease
what ate the adverse effects of HIV agents?
GI, CNS and bone marrow supression
how do antivirals work?
they inhibit the DNA/RNA synthesis
What are the adverse effects of local anesthetics?
1. Toxicity of 2 systems
CNS: initial-restlesness, tremors convulsions
CNS: depression, coma, death
C-V: myocardial depression, fatal arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)

2. Malignant hyperthermia (local)
GENETIC reaction, Ca goes up, rigid muscles, acidosis and elevated body temp

3. Allergic reaction
RARE to amides, more common with esters ranges from rash to anaphylactic shock
common vasoconstrictor found in anesthetic carpule
epinephrine; keeps anesthetic in local area for a long time
common concentration found in carpule
2-3% with or without vasoconstrictor
why are antioxidant present in anesthetic carpules?
keeps the epinephrine from breaking down
found in carpules to keep the pH level correct
sodium hydroxide
makes the anesthetic carpule solution isotonic
sodium chloride
preservative found in multi-dose bottles of anesthetic carpules
propylparaben
why are esters no longer available as single dose dental carpules?
they have the propensity to cause local allergic reactions
esters are usually used as topicals, T or F?
True

reapeated use can cause an allergic reaction
safest ester, frequently used to regulate heartbeat
novacaine