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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the adrenal medulla mainly releases __________
epinephrine
__________ is the enzyme that converts NE to Epi in the adrenal medulla
PNMT
does epi or norepi bind better to beta2 receptors?
epi
Epi in low doses _______ PVR, and _________ PVR in high doses
decreases, increases
ACh diffuses into the blood stream where it is broken down into Choline and acetate by the enzyme ____________
Butyryl Cholinesterase
______________ is released from parasympathetic nerve terminals and binds to ______ and ________ receptors
ACh; M and N
What is the main method for ACh inactivation?
Acetylcholinesterase located in synaptic cleft
Where are N receptors?
PS ganglia, S ganglia, Skeletal m.
Where are M receptors located?
glands, smooth m., organs (heart, kidney, intestines, etc)
G___ activates adenyl cyclase
s
G__ inhibits adenylyl cyclase
i
G__ activates phospholipase Cbeta
q
alpha1 receptors are associated with which G-protein?
Gq
PLCbeta activation causes _______ IP3, _______ PKC and ______ Ca2+
increased; increased; increased
What effect do alpha1 agonists have on BP?
increase
alpha2 receptors are associated with which G-protein?
Gi
alpha2 receptor agonists have what effect on neurotransmitter release? K+ permeability?
decrease; increase
beta receptors are associated with which G-protein?
Gs
What is the effect of beta1 receptor agonists on kidneys and heart?
increased renin release; increased HR and force of contraction
What is the effect of beta2 receptor agonists on smooth m. and liver?
relaxation; glycogenolysis/gluconeogenesis
What is the effect of beta3 receptors on adipose tissue?
lipolysis
M3 receptors are located on _______ and ___________ and activate G_____
smooth m; secretory glands; q
Where are M2 receptors located? Which G-protein do they activate?
heart; Gi
chronic exposure to an antagonist causes receptor ___________
upregulation
What are two ways to induce mydriasis using autonomic mimetics?
Block M receptors, Activate alpha1 receptors
What type of autonomic receptors are on the ciliary m.?
M3
m receptor agonists cause the ciliary m. to __________ allowing for ________ vision
contract; near
What would you give to a patient to dilate the pupil and avoid the effect of blurry vision?
alpha1 agonist
What endogenous catecholamine is most likely to bind to beta2 receptors on the lungs?
Epi
What type of M receptors are found in the lungs? what effects do their agonists have?
M3; bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion
What type of drug would be considered a physiological antagonist of bronchoconstriction?
B2 agonist
M3 receptor agonists in the stomach cause what?
acid secretion
Which receptors are activated to cause detrusor m. contraction?
M
Which receptors are activated to cause urinary sphincter constriction?
alpha1
stimulation of _____ causes ejaculation
alpha1
__________ stimulation causes erection
parasympathetic
Activation of M3 receptors on endothelial walls results in?
NO release and vasodilation
What effect does parasympathetic activation have on PVR?
none
liver and skeletal m. blood vessels have mainly ____ adrenergic receptors
beta2
Parasympathetic stimulation to the heart _________ HR, _________ force of contraction (atrial) and ________ conduction velocity
decrease; decrease; decrease
Sympathetic stimulation to the heart activates beta__ receptors
1
Stimulation of which type of receptor will produce the greatest increase in cardiac output?
beta1
What is one of the most bothersome side effects of blocking muscarinic receptors?
dry mouth
What may be a consequence of blocking beta receptors in a diabetic?
impair response to hypoglycemia
activation of alpha2 receptors on pancreas ________ insulin release
decreases
activation of beta2 receptors on skeletal m. shifts K+ _______ the cell
into