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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of ANS
Regulation of the heart

Regulation of secretory glands

Regulation of smooth muscles
Functions of Parasympathetic
Slowing of the heart rate
Inc gastric secretions
Emptying of bladder
Emptying of bowel
Focus the eye
Constrict the pupil
Contract bronchial smooth muscle
Functions of Sympathetic
Inc heart rate
Vasoconstriction for more blood to brain
Shunt blood away from intestines
Regulate temperature
Dilate pupil
Dilate bronchi
Mobilized stored energy
Neurotransmitters of PNS
Acetylcholine (ACh)

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Dopamine
Receptors of the PNS
Cholinergic

-Respond to Acetylcholine (Ach)
-Subtypes nicotinic, muscarinic

Adrenergic

-Respond to epinephrine ( adrenaline) and Norepinephrine
-Subtypes - Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2
Function of alpha 1 receptors

Adrenergic
Dilatation of the iris

Vasoconstriction

Bladder contraction

Ejaculation
Function of alpha 2 receptors

Adrenergic
Minimal significance in the PNS
Functions of beta 1 receptors

Adrenergic
Cardiac receptors

Increase heart rate
-Increased force of contraction
-Increased velocity of conduction through AV node

Kidney receptors
-Release of rennin
-Increased vasoconstriction
Functions of beta 2 receptors

Adrenergic
Bronchial dilation

Relaxation of the smooth muscle of the uterus

Vasodilation

Glycogenolysis – increasing blood glucose

Enhanced skeletal muscle contraction
Dopamine
Uncertain function

Dilates renal blood vessels
inc. renal perfusion

Used in Parkinson disease
Cholinergic Drugs
Act to mimic or block the action of acetylcholine (ACh) or to prevent the break down of acetylcholine (ACh)

Types:

Anticholinergic drugs
--Example Atropine

Cholinesterase Inhibitors
--Example Nostigmine

Neuromuscular Blocking agents
--Example Succinylcholine
Atropine

MOA

Anticholinergic drugs
Mechanism of Action:

-Blocks receptor activation by acetylcholine
Atropine

Pharm Effects

Anticholinergic drugs
Increases heart rate

Decreases secretion of glands

Relaxation of smooth muscle

Dilates pupil

Can cause CNS excitation
* Dose dependency
Atropine

IND

Anticholinergic drugs
Preanesthesia

Bradycardia

Disorders of the eye
Atropine

AE

Anticholinergic drugs
Dry mouth,
blurred vision,
inc IOP,
Urinary retention,
constipation,
tachycardia,
asthma
Atropine

DI

Anticholinergic drugs
Antihistamines

Tricyclic antidepressants
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

MOA
Prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh) by acetylcholinesterase
(resulting in inc Ach)
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

IND
Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Therapeutic Effects
Increased muscle force of contraction

CNS mild stimulation

* dose dependent
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

AE
Excessive salivation,

increased gastric secretions,

increased GI function,

urinary urgency,

bradycardia
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

CI
Bowel or bladder obstruction
Succinylcholine

NM Blocking Agent

MOA
Acts to block the nicotinic receptors
Succinylcholine

NM Blocking Agent

Effects
Muscle relaxation and paralysis

Duration of action: - peak 1 minute, fades completely 4-10 minutes later
Succinylcholine

NM Blocking Agent

IND
Muscle relaxation during surgery

Facilitation of mechanical ventilation

Facilitation of endotracheal entubation
Epinephrine

Adrenergic agonists

MOA
Acts on alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 receptors

Sympathometic response
Epinephrine

Adrenergic agonists

IND
Anaphylaxis – Epipen

Asthma

Cardiac arrest

Control bleeding – topical application
Epinephrine

Adrenergic agonists

AE
Hypertensive crisis
Dysrhythmias
Angina
Hyperglycemia
Necrosis (in IV treatment)
Epinephrine

Adrenergic agonists

DI
MAO inhibitors
Tricyclic antidepressants
Isoproterenol

Adrenergic agonists

IND
Cardiac disorders, AV block, cardiac arrest
Isoproterenol

Adrenergic agonists

AE
tachydysrhythmias
Dopamine

Adrenergic Drugs

IND
Shock
Acts to increase CO, improve tissue profusion, increase UO
Heart failure
Renal failure
Terbutaline

Adrenergic Drugs
Delays labor by relaxing uterine smooth muscle
Adrenergic Antagonists

types
Alpha blockers

Beta blockers
Adrenergic Antagonists

Alpha blockers

IND
HTN, Raynaud’s disease
Adrenergic Antagonists

Beta blockers

IND
Example Propranolol

HTN,
Dysrhythmias
MI
Migraine Headaches
Clonidine

Indirect Acting Antiadrenergic agents

MOA
Inhibits firing of the sympathetic neurons, decreasing release of NE from the peripheral neurons decreasing activation of the adrenergic receptors
Clonidine

Indirect Acting Antiadrenergic agents

IND
HTN
Pain control (epidural infusion)
Clonidine

Indirect Acting Antiadrenergic agents

AE
Dry mouth, drowsiness, rebound hypertension