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148 Cards in this Set

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a(with a line above the letter)
before
"antes"
aa, aa(with a line above the letters)
of each
two letters mirror "each" other.
a.c.
before meals
"antes comer"
ad. lib.
as desired, freely
"with liberty"
a.m., AM
morning, before noon
M for morning
amp
ampule
a small glass vial containing solutions for hypodermic injection
aq
aqueous, water
liquid form
b.i.d., bid
twice a day
bi=twice
b.i.w., biw
twice a week
bi=twice
c(with a line above the letter)
with
"con" in Spanish="with" in English
c(witout the line)
cup
cap, caps
capsule
CD
controlled dose
CR
controlled release
dil.
dilute
DS
double strength
EC
enteric coated
elix.
elixir
a sweetened aromatic solution of alcohol and water containing, or used as a vehicle for, medicinal substances
fl, fld.
fluid
gt, GT
gastrostomy tube
gt is not the same as gtt!
gtt
drop
1 mL=15 (16)minims=15 (16)drops(gtts)
h, hr
hour
ID
intradermal
D for dermis
IM
intramuscular
M for muscle
IV
intravenous
V for veins
IVPB
intravenous piggyback
IVSS
intravenous soluset
KVO
keep vein open(a very slow infusion rate)
LA
long-acting
LOS
length of stay
min
minute
mix
mixture
NGT, ng
nasogastric tube
noc, noct
at night
noct=nocturnal
n.p.o., NPO
nothing by mouth
Nada Per Oral
NS, N/S
normal saline
o.n.
every night
"otra nocturna"
os
mouth
p(with a line above the letter)
after
post
p.c.
after meals
post comer
per
through or by
p.m., PM
evening, before midnight
p.r.
by rectum
per rectum
p.r.n.
when necessary/required, as needed
q.
every, each
q.a.m
every morning
q.h., qh
every hour
q2h, q4h, q6h, q8h, q12h
every 2hours, every 4hours, every 6hours, every 8hours, every 12 hours
qhs, q.h.s.
every night at bedtime
s=snooze time
q.i.d., qid
4 times a day
quatro in dia
q.s.
a sufficient amount/as much as needed/quantities sufficient
quantity sufficient
rect
rectum
s(with a line above the letter)
without
subcut, subQ
subcutaneous
under the skin
sl, SL
sublingual
under the tongue
sol, soln
solution
s.o.s.
once if necessary
solo o sufficient
SR
sustained release
S&S
swish & swallow
stat, STAT
immediately, at once
supp
suppository
susp
suspension
syp, syr
syrup
tab
tablet
t.i.d., tid
three times a day
tres in dia
tr., tinct
tincture
a solution of alcohol or of alcohol and water, containing animal, vegetable or chemical drugs
ung., oint
ointment
vag, v
vaginally
x
times
XL
long acting
XL=LA
XR
extended release
U
stands for "unit"= DO NOT USE-mistaken as zero, four, or cc. Write "unit."
IU
stands for "international unit"=DO NOT USE-mistaken as IV(intravenous) or 10(ten). Write "international unit."
q.d., q.o.d.
once daily, every other day=DO NOT USE-mistaken as one or the other in definition. Write "daily" and "every other day"
trailing zero, lack of leading zero
DO NOT USE-decimal point is missed. Never write a zero by itself after a decimal point(X mg), and always use a zero before a decimal point (0.X mg).
supp
suppository
susp
suspension
syp, syr
syrup
tab
tablet
t.i.d., tid
three times a day
tres in dia
tr., tinct
tincture
a solution of alcohol or of alcohol and water, containing animal, vegetable or chemical drugs
ung., oint
ointment
vag, v
vaginally
x
times
XL
long acting
XL=LA
XR
extended release
U
stands for "unit"= DO NOT USE-mistaken as zero, four, or cc. Write "unit."
IU
stands for "international unit"=DO NOT USE-mistaken as IV(intravenous) or 10(ten). Write "international unit."
q.d., q.o.d.
once daily, every other day=DO NOT USE-mistaken as one or the other in definition. Write "daily" and "every other day"
trailing zero, lack of leading zero
DO NOT USE-decimal point is missed. Never write a zero by itself after a decimal point(X mg), and always use a zero before a decimal point (0.X mg).
MS, MSO4, MgS04
DO NOT USE-often confused for one another. Write "morphine sulfate" or "magnesium sulfate."
dr
dram
1 dram=grains 60
g
gram
kg
kilogram
L
liter
m
minim
mcg
microgram
mEq
milliequivalent
mg
milligram
mL
milliliter
oz
ounce
1 oz=2 tbs=6 tsp=30 mL
pt
pint
1 pt=16 oz=500 mL
qt
quart
1 qt=2 pt=32 oz=1000mL=1 L
T, tbs
tablespoon
1 T=3 tsp=1/2 oz=15 mL
t, tsp
teaspoon
1 t=5 mL
c, C (without the line above the letter)
cup
gr
grain
gr 1=60 mg
gr 15=1 g=1000mg
###Remember the clock!15=1/4, 30=1/2, 45=3/4, 60=1###
PHARMACOKINETICS
the study of drug movement throughout the body; describes how the body handles medications
WHAT ARE THE FOUR CATEGORIES OF PHARMACOKINETICS?
absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
pharmacological classification
addresses a drug's mechanism of action, or how a drug produces its effect in the body; it is more specific than a therapeutic classification and requires an understanding of biochemistry & physiology.
therapeutic classification
clearly states what a particular drug does clinically and is based on the drug's usefulness in treating a particular disease. Example: antihypertensive, antihistamine, etc
chemical name
assigned using standard nomenclature est. by IUPAC; each drug has only one chemical name.
generic name
assigned by the US Adopted Council; less complicated than the chemical name; there is only one generic name for each drug; decribes the active ingredient of the drug.
trade name
assigned by the company marketing the drug; usually selected to be short & easy to remember; aka the proprietary product or brand name.
combination drug
contains more than one active generic ingredient
bioavailability
the physiological ability of the drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect; may be affected by iner ingredients and tablet compression(crushing).
negative formulary list
a list of trade-name drugs that pharmacists may not dispense as generic drugs.
addiction
refers to the overwhelming feeling that drives someone to use a drug repeatedly.
dependence
a physiological or psychological need for a substance
physical dependence
refers to an altered physical condition caused by the adaptation of the nervous system to repeated drug use
withdrawal
physical signs of discomfort when the drug is no longer available to the body
psychological dependence
an intense compelling desire to continue drug use
scheduled drugs
drugs that are classified according to their potential for abuse: Schedule I drugs have the highest potential and Schedule V drugs have the lowest potential for abuse.
Schedule I Drugs
have the highest potential for abuse; have little or no therapeutic value or are intended for research purposes only.
Schedule V Drugs
have the lowest potential for abuse; the only category in which some drugs may be dispensed w/o a prescription because the quantities of the controlled drug are so low that the possibility of causing dependence is extremely low.
Shcedule II Drugs
requires special order form by the dispensing entity to obtain this category of drugs; order must be written and signed by teh HCP; refills are not permitted w/o client seeing the HCP first.
anaphylaxis
acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated
hypotension & may be life-threatening
ASAP order
as soon as possible order that should be available for administration to the patient within 30 minutes of the written order
30 minutes
enteral route
drugs given orally, and those administered through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes
passes through the GI system
parenteral route
dispensing of medications via a needle into the skin layers
bypases the GI system
routine order
orders not written as STAT, ASAP, NOW, or PRN
single order
medication that is to be given only once, and at a specific time, such as a preoperative order
standing order
order written in advance of a situation, which is to be carried out under specific circumstances
absorption
the process of moving a drug across body membranes
moving across membranes
conjugates
side chains that, during metabolism, make drugs more water soluble and more easily excreted by the kidney
the more water soluble a drug is the more it's easily excreted by the kidneys
distribution
the process of transporting drugs through the body
transporting
drug-protein complex
drug that has bound reversibly to plasma proteins, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to body tissues
makes drug unavailable for distribution
enterohepatic recirculation
recycling of drugs and other substances by the circulation of bile through the intestine and liver
enzyme induction
process in which a drug changes the function of the hepatic microsomal enzymes and increases metabolic activity in the liver
induce=induction>>>increase metabolic activity
first-pass effect
mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed across the intestinal wall and enter into the hepatic portal circulation
loading dose
comparatively large dose given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain the therapeutic effect of a drug
maintenance dose
dose that keeps the plasma drug concentration continuously in the therapeutic range
plasma half-life
the length of time required for a drug to decrease its concentration in the plasma by one-half after administration
prodrug
drug that becomes more active after it is metabolized
agonist
drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response
antagonist
drug that blocks the response of another drug
partial agonist
medication that produces a weaker, or less efficacious, response than an agonist
benzodiazepines
major class of drugs used to treat anxiety disorders