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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An agent that might kill is...?
An Agent that will prevent growth is...?
Added to various LIQUID dosage forms and cosmetic prepartions to prevent microbial contamination.
Also known as Parabens
p-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Used as antifungal preservatives
Occur naturally in gum benzoin and balsams.
Benzoic acid & Esters
Used as an antiseptic in lotions, ointments, mouthwashes, and also as a preservative in food.
Benzoic acid and Salt
Also know as phenylcarbinal, phenylmethanol
Benzyl Alcohol
Preservative in vials of injectable drugs in concentraction of 1-4% in water or saline solution. Has the advantage of having a local anesthetic action.
Benzyl Alcohol
Benzyl Alcohol is...
Bacteriostatic or Bacteriocidal
Antifungal Preservative that is sparingly soluble in water
Sorbic Acid and Salt
Used to preserve syrups, elixirs, ointments, and lotions containing components such as sugars that support mold growth.
Sorbic Acid and Salt
Used as a bacteriostatic agent in pharmaceuticals for injections, opthalmic and intranasal administration. Slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and organic solvents.
Chlorobutanol Chloretone
Unstable when heated in aqueous solutions especially at pHs about 7. It undergoes the haloform RXN.
Chlorobutanol Chloretone
Alcohol, sodium propionate, phenylmercuric nitrate and accetate.
Other Preservatives
Exerts a rapid and sustained lethal action against microorganisms, retain activity in the presence of body fluids, be non irritations to tissues, lack systemic toxicity when applied to skin or mucous membranes, and not interfere with healing.
Ideal Antiseptic
An agent that prevents infection by the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms when applied to inanimate object.
Considering alcohols, branching increases activity. (tertiary>secondary>primary)
True or False??
Primary alcohols have the greatest activity
Widely Used alcohols
Ethyl and Isopropyl
Primary uses for alcohols and aldehydes
External uses: as an antiseptic, preservative, mild counterirritant or solvent
Consider a primary alcohol...Will an alcohol with a MW of C10 have a higher potency than an alcohol with a MW of C7???
Beyond C8, water solubility if less than MEC. Therefore, after C8, potency decreases as the MW increases.
Ratio of a disinfectant to dilution of phenol required to kill a given strain of bacteria.
Phenol Coefficient
Considering phenols, substitution with alkyl, aryl, and halogen (especially para) groups, Increases OR Decreases activity???
Increases bactericidal activity
Considering phenols; Are Straight Chain alkyl groups more effective than branched ones???
Yes, straight chain groups are more effective.
True or False
Monophenolics are more potent than Biphenolics
Used in 2-3% in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and other forms for a variety of antiseptic uses.
Phenols are found in throat lozenges for two reasons.
They have surface-active properties and they also have anesthetic activity.
Depend upon liberation of oxygen in the tissues: particularly useful against anerobic bacteria and in the cleansing of contaminated woulnds.
Oxidizing Agents
Mechanism used by oxidizing agents.
Denatures proteins through direct oxidant action
Disadvantage of oxidizing agents
Poor permeability into tissues and organic matter
One of the oldest known germicides in use today.
Used as an antiseptic for application to the skin before surgery and injections, for the treatment of infected wounds and laceratiosn, and for local bacterial and fungal infections.
Halogen-Containing Compounds
Used for disinfecting water
Rapid and marked cidal action against most microorganisms including both gram+ and gram- bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses and spores.
Oxychlorosene sodium
Quaternary ammonium compounds that ionize in water and exhibit surface active properties: cationic head and long hydrocarbon tail.
Cationic Surfactants
Activity is due to surface-active properties
Cationic Surfactants
Benzalkonium Chloride is what type of antimicrobial agent?
Cationic Surfactant
What are the two groups of mycoses infections?
Dermatophytoses and Yeast Infections
All fatty acids have fungicidal properties...True or False?
High or low molecular weight fatty acid members have lower volatility?
Higher Molecular Weight
Propionic acid, Caprylic acid, and Undecylenic Acid
Commonly used acids and salts
Effective against most fungi that cause superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Also effective against yeast that cause systemic infections.
Imidazoles are fungistatic at what concentrations?
Low concentraions...nanomolar
Imidazoles are fungicidal at what concentrations?
High concentrations...micromolar
2% Concentration of this nitrate salt is used in most topical prepartions such as creams, lotions, powders, and sprays
Available in the injectable form for the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections.
Free Base Miconazole
What is Miconazole used for?
Treatment of tinea infections, cutaneous and vaginal candidiasis
Used for treatment of ringworm, jock itch, and athlete's foot.
Available as 1% in creams, powders, aerosols, gels, and solutions for superficial tinea infections
Orally active antifungal agent
Flucytosine, 5-FC
For serious systemic infection of Candida and Cryptococcus
Flucytosine, 5-FC
Generally called polyenes
Antifungal Antibiotics
Produce leakage through the cell. Appear to bind with sterol in the membrane to cause disorganization and loss of cell constituents.
i.e. the cidal action at high concentration
Antifungal Antibiotics
Broad spectrum with potent activity against pathogenic yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. Not effective against bacteria, rickettsia, or viruses
Antifungal Antibiotics
Systemic infections are limited by the poor chemical stabilities, low water solubilities and toxicities.
Toxicities are expressed by: nephritis toxicity, fever, GI distress, headache, anorexia, muscle & joint pain
Amphotericin B
Ststemic absorption following oral administration is practically nil.
An example of a 26 membered macrolide.
Example of a Non-Macrolide
Used for systemic treatment of tinea infections. i.e. refractory ringworm infections of the body, nails, hair, and feet caused by various species of dermatophytic fungi.