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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blocks transmission WITHIN sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglion
anti-nicotinic drugs
prototype for antimuscarinic agents
ATROPINE
Antipsychotics
Haldol
Thorazine
HYOSCYAMINE
AKA atropine - an anti-muscarinic prototype
block transmission BETWEEN the parasympathetic postganglionic fiber and the target organ
antimuscarinic drugs
TCA's
Elavil (amitriptyline)
Tofranil
tertiary ammonium analogues of atropine
dicyclomine (Bentyl)
tropicamide Mydriacil
dimenhydrinate
dramamine, antihistamine
action of Atropine
reversible, competitive blockade of muscarinic receptors
how can Atropine be overcome?
a concentration of Ach greater than that of atropine, or a muscarinic AGONIST
diphenhydramine
benedryl, antihistamine
side effects of antihistamines
predictable anti-muscarinic
dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation = the opposite of DUMBELS
action of fundoscopic drugs
cause temporary paralysis of ciliary body, pupillary dilation (mydriasis)
drugs to cause mydriasis
tropcamide (Mydriacil)
cyclogil
Atropine sulfate
treating allergies
antihistamines
dimenydrinate (dramamine)
benedryl
name the tertiary cmpds use dto treat IBS
Bentyl (dicyclomine)
Levsin
name an opoid from the handout combined with another drug to tx mild GI hypermobility?
diphenoxylate
thes drugs reduce vagal-muscarinic induced gastric acid secretion
quaternary compounds
Librax
clidinium and chloradiaepoxide - for tx of IBS
what are the advantages of using quaternary compounds over H2 blockers for IBS and peptic ulcer?
they dont cross the BBB, and can be used when the others are not tolerated well
why would you Rx Lomotil? whart are the components of this drug?
travelers diarrhea and mild GI tract hypermobility
-atropine + diphenoxylate (an opoid)
differentiate b/t the common anti-diarrheal treaments of Imodium
Imodium is Rx Imodium A-D is OTC,= not antimuscarinic, only opoid drugs
trimethaphan on rare occaisons may be used to...
decrease blood pressure in an emergency situation - the reason it is rarely used = adverse autonomic affects
name the quaternary compound used to treate IBS and peptic ulcer
glycopyrrolate (Rubinol)
a synthetic amine that acts as a ganglionic blocker for both the para and sympa systems is
Arfonad (trimethaphan)
T/F the best course of tx for C. diff. Colitis is Imodium
FALSE - this Chlamydia bacteria releases toxins A & B and can destroy the colon - antidiarrheal drugs will enhance the lifespan of C. ddiff, ulitmately necitating total colectomy
three drugs used as adjuvants in the tx of IBS
Roninul, Bentyl, Libras, Levsin
Flagyl (metronidazloe) and/or vancomycin are used to treat...
C. difficile colitis
ditropan, oxybutynin and detrol LA
used to treat overactive bladder
why was atropine or scopolamine used along with ether during surgery?
to prevent bronchial secretions and laryngospasm
what is the effect of parasympathetic muscarinic activity in relationship to the bronchial system?
causes bronchoconstriction in the bronchial tree
what affect does an antimuscarinic drug have on the bronchioles?
they are bronchdilators, and facilitate breathing
what seems to be the trigger for C. diff colitis?
use of broad spectrum ABx- it kills off the good commensal bacteria and allows C. Diff to grow
Atroven, spiriva an combivent are used to treat what?
ashtma and COPD a
what are the advantages of using and inhaler to tx COPD asthma?
localized delivery, thereby reducing possible side effects of the drugs
what are negative side effects of using an antimuscarinic cmpd along with anesthesia?
postop tendency toward intestinal hypomobility and urinary retention exacerbation
what current anesthesia agents are used to avoid the use of antimuscarinic drugs?
halothane, enflurane, isoflurane
trigger for asthma inhalers
just ASC for one to help you breath

Atrovent
spiriva
combivent
what antihistamines have antimuscarinic effects an waht are they used for? side effects?
Dramamine and Antivert - used to treat motion sickness- can cx drowsiness
what antiemetics/antimuscarinics are used to treat motion sickness?
Transderm Scop patch
scopolamine
Dramamine
Antivert
what is the drug of choice for Parkinson's disease?
levodopa
what is the primary action of Parkinson's disease on the body?
loss of dopaminigerci neurons in the substantia nigra, and loss of fx output from SN to globus pallidus
what is the biggest challenge in treating parkinsons?
creating balance between cholinergic muscarinic activity and dopamine
what antimuscarinic adjuvants are used to treat parkinsons?
Cogentin, Artane, benedryl injection
why is Sinemet used?
it is a combo drug made from levodopa and carbidopa to tx parkinsons
MC form of (or preferred form) of antiemetics? why?
inj and suppository - cuz if you are vomitting, you cant hold down the drug to help you stop that horrible hell
what is the drug of choice used to act as an antidote for organophsophate (insecticide) or mushroom poisoning?
ATROPINE
what is compazine?
an antiemetic used to treat motion sickness symptoms of N/V
list 4 uses for Atropine
antidote for organophospate poisoning
2. atropine sulfate for fundoscopoic exams (dilation)
3. along w/ diphenoxylate to tx mild GI hypermobility
4.preoperatively