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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, 3 classes
Macrolides
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
The Macrolides (4)
1- Erythromycin
2- Clarithromycin: more stable in acid
3- Azithromycin: longer T.5
4- Telithromycin
Erythromycin
- Reversibly binds to 50S and inhibits translocation of tRNA
- Targets G+ staph and strep
- SE: GI upset (nausea and heartburn), inc GI motility by binding to motilin, strong inhibitor of P450, ototoxicity, liver damage
Telithromycin
- SE: severe liver toxicity; a neurotoxin, can block nicotinic receptors in muscles (adverse effects on myasthenia gravis and eye issues)
Aminoglycosides (7)
1- Streptomycin
2- Gentamycin
3- Tobramyin
4- Neomycin: very nephrotoxic
5- Amikacin
6- Kanamycin
7- Netilmicin
Streptomycin
- Irreversibly binds to 30S; alters tRNA binding to mRNA=> mRNA misreading
- SE: oto/nephrotoxic, at high doses can dec ACh and ACh receptors on muscle (neuromuscular blockade), category D
- Aerobic G-
Tetracyline
- Reversibly binds to 30S; inhibits the binding of tRNA to A site
- SE: Bind to cations Fe, Al, and especially Ca, category D, renal and hepatic toxicity, allergic photosensitivity, degrades to renal/hepatic toxins in vitro, so DON'T use past expiration date
Other tetracyclines (3)
1- Doxycycline
2- Minocyline
3- Tigecycline
Chloramphenicol
- Inhibits peptidyl transferase
- SE: inhibits P450, blood dyscarias, metabolized by phase II reactions (glucorindation), inc chloranphenicol -> vascular collapse -> cyanosis (gray baby syndrome), hemolytic anemias esp in Px w/ G6P dehase deficiency
- Targets salmonella, beta-lactam resistant organisms, ppl allergic to penicillin
Lincosamides- clindamycin, lincomycin
- Like erythromycin, enzyme inhibitor
- SE: C. difficile superinfection
- Targets severe anaerobic infections, G+ and G-, dental prophylaxis in Px w/ heart valve problems
Streptogramins: Quinupristin + Dalfopristin
- Quin blocks binding of tRNA at A & P site; Dalf blocks A site
- SE: inhibit P450, joint and muscle pain
- Targets G+
Oxazolidinone- Linezolid
- Inhibits binding of fmet tRNA to P site
- SE: anemia, thrombocytopenia, C. dificile infections
- Targets G+ and Tx MRSA
Daptomycin
- Disrupts bacterial cell membranes
- SE: eosinophilic pneumonia, muscle weakness
- Targets aerobic G+; not for pneumonia -> it binds to surfactant
Fidaxomicin
- Very specific for C. dificile
- Oral, not systemically absorbed
- Inhibits RNA polymerase of C. dificile
- SE: GI upset
Fluoroquinolines- Ciprofloxacin
- Inhibits topoisomerase II & IV
- Targets broad spectrum G+ and G-, acid fast
- SE: damage to developing cartilage (tendinitis, achilles tendon rupture), CNS (nausea, convulsions), visual (retinal detachment, corneal proliferation), worsens myasthenia gravis
Other quinolones (7)
" the Floxacins"
1- Ofloxacin
2- Gatifloxacin
3- Moxifloxacin
4- Levofloxacin
5- Gemifloxacin
6- Norfloxacin
7- Lomefloxacin
Sulfonamides- Sulfisoxazole
- Inhibits dihydropterate synthetase
- Tagets broad spectrum, UTIs
- SE: allergic rxn=> Steven Johnson syndrome (whole body rash)- life threatening, hemolytic anemias (G6P deficiency), jaundice

*Sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine
Trimethoprim
- Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
- Very specific for bacterial enzyme
- Used in combo w/ sulfa drugs
- Targets G-, especially in UTI
- SE: megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia