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42 Cards in this Set

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What are some factors that can affect drug detection in racehorses?
• Physiological
Urine flow rate
Blood flow rate
Intra- and inter-horse variability
Feed
Disease
Exercise
• Pharmacological factors
Dosage
Dosing interval
Route of administration
Drug-drug interactions
• Analytical factors
Choice of screening test, some are more sensitive than
others
What is the difference between a "jug" and a "runnin jug"
A "jug" is typically 1L electrolyte (lactated ringers solution or saline) with or without extra additives
A "runnin jug" is 500cc, usually Dexolyte solution, combination of dextrose and electrolytes
In racetrack terminology the term bleeder is used for a horse with what problem?
EIPH - Exercise induced pulmonary hemmorhage
It is common for a track hand to administer a nasogastric drench the day of the race? T/F
False. Barn personnel are not allowed to possess nasogastric tubes
Blocks given on raceday commonly possess what type of drug?
Mainly anti-inflammatory meds
- Combination of very low dose corticosteroid plus mild pain reliever
What advantageos factors for wound healing are caused by using a "blister"?
Increased blood flow
Recruitment of healing factors to the area
What are 5 different treatment types used for lameness?
• Anti-inflammatory
NSAIDs, can use 24 hours pre race
Corticosteroids, mostly used
intra-articularly (IA), not
systemic
• Replacement
Hyaluronic acid: HA given IA
(significant flare if given
alone), analogs given IM (Adequan)
or IV (Legend)
Chondroitins, glucosamines: cartilage
builders
• Analgesia (mild): Sarapin,
methylcarbamine(muscle relaxant)
• Counter-irritation to promote blood
flow
Internal and external blisters
• Adjunct therapy: physical therapy
(swimming, training)
Rhabdomyolysis is commonly known as what and what are some treatments for it?
Rhabdomyolysis is "tying up"

Treatments include
• Anti-inflammatory
NSAIDs, can use 24 hours pre race
• Sedatives
Xylazine, detomidine, acepromazine
(not used as much because
withdrawal time longer than
α2-agonists)
Steroids
Boldenone decolate (Equipoise),
altrenogest(Regumate), testosterone
• Helps to decrease anxiety, thought to
contribute to tying up syndrome
• Ca++ channel blocker: dantrolene
• Muscle relaxant (central acting):
methocarbamol(not used much anymore)
The trade name of the primary drug used for EIPH?
Lasix
What are three consequences of Training Stress Syndrome
• Stop eating
• Gastric ulcers
• Tie up
The anabolic steroids: Boldenone decolate, stanozolol, and testosterone have what two effects that are beneficial when talking about Training Stress Syndrome?
Increased appetite
Increased boldness
Which factors require Vitamin K for activity?
II, VII, IX, X
Which two local hemostatics would be preferred for use during surgery for a large oozing area? Which of these two is definitely contraindicated for orthopaedic surgery?
Gelatin Sponge
Oxidized cellulose

Oxidised cellulose
Heparin vs Coumarin
Which is more likely to require further Tx after removal of the drug?
Coumarin
Since it is cheaper why is coumarin not used as an anticoagulant in tubes of blood?
Coumarins reduce the presence of Vit K
dependent factors, works in vivo
Which is more likely to have deleterious effects of coumarin poisining: a lactating bitch, or the sire?
If all other factors are the same the sire is most likely to be affected. Lactating animals resistant, lactogenic hormone
protectant
When using a coumarin Tx regimen what level would you like to see on an OSPT (one stage prothrombin test)

A. 1-1.5x normal
B. 1.5-2x normal
C. 2-2.5x normal
D. 2.5-3x normal
C. 2-2.5x normal
What factor does the OSPT check?
Factor VII
What is prevented from further depletion by use of heparin in DIC?
Replacement clotting factors and platelets
Why is IM heparin use not recommended
increased Hematoma formation
What else needs to be present in order for heparin to work?
α globulin or antithrombin III
What factors are inhibited by heparin?
Inhibits factors from both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways including thrombin, Xa, IXa, XIa,XIIa,and kallikrein
Why is the antiplatelet activity of aspirin long lived?
Aspirin binds to the COX receptors irreversibly, thus preventing binding to these receptors for the life of the platelet.
If you give 15 mg of carprofen to a 15 kg dog is it a reasonable assumption that you should give 1mg to a 1 kg turtle?
Hell No!!
EXTRAPOLATION BETWEEN SPECIES IS NOT
RECOMMENDED!!!!!
What are three safe methods of acetominophen metabolism?
Glucoronidation, Sulfonation, GS added (glutathione?)
Why is acetaminophen not used in cats?
Cats- very sensitive to toxicity

* Methemoglobinemia (most imp)
* Hemolysis & signs of icterus, anemia & Hburia
* Heinz-body anemia
* Edema of face & extremity
* Cyanosis
* Liver necrosis
Give some reasons why aspirin is the most main NSAID used as an antithrombotic
• Only irreversible NSAID
• Covalently modifies COX1 & 2
• Most important consequence in platelets
• Platelets have no nucleus, therefore no
machinery to make new proteins
• Effect lasts the lifetime of the
platelet (~8-11 days)
• Only need small doses
Fever is reduced by the inhibition of synthesis of which prostaglandin?
PGE2
Which cyclooxygenase has recently been found in the CNS, and which 2 NSAIDs are preferred in use against it
COX 3

Acetaminophen and Carprofen
Gastric Ulcers may be formed when NSAIDs prevent production of which prostaglandins?
Which NSAID is most likely to cause ulceration? Least likely?
PGE2, PGI2

Indomethacin
Ketoprofen
What concurrent conditions are likely to lead to kidney damage when an animal is treated with NSAIDs
Dehydration
Use of other drugs that are potentially harmful to the kidney (aminoglycosides)
How is kidney damage going to be manifested as a result of NSAID use
Renal Papillary Necrosis
What are 4 signs of Addisonian crises? What may cause this?
–Cardiovascular collapse
–Respiratory collapse
–Coma
–Death

Sudden withdrawal of corticosteroids
Name 7 short term adverse affects of corticosteroid use.
• Stress leukogram
• Hepatic enzyme leakage into plasma
• Sick euthyroid syndrome
• PU/PD
• Polyphagia
• Teratogenic
• Abortion (C16 forms only)
Name 7 adverse affects of prolonged corticosteroid use.
• Increased susceptibility to infections
• Myopathy
• Behavioral changes
• Osteoporosis
• Inhibition of growth in young animals
• Thinning of skin
• Collagen diseases
Which enzymes are most affected my antiinflammatory steroids? Non steroidal antiinflammatories?
Phospholipase (prevents arachadonic acid production)

Cyclooxygenase (prevents prostaglandin production)
Why should glucocorticoids not be used in pregnant animals?
Teratogenic
Some cause abortion
What cell type produces estrogen and androgens?
Theca cells
Where in the ovary is progesterone produced?
Corpus luteum
Which cell type in the testis produces testosterone?
Leydig cells
What are some contraindications for corticosteroid use?(7)
– Diabetes mellitus
– Pre-existing catabolic
conditions
– Bacterial or fungal
disease
– Ocular viral infections
– Growth in young animals
– Pregnancy
– Delays wound healing
Where is aldosterone (mineralocorticoids) produced?
Adrenal gland