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94 Cards in this Set

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Define Pharmacology?
the study of drugs & the interaction in the living system like the physical and chemical prop. that effects the body.
What is the Therapeutic objective?
maximum benefit with minimum harm.
what are the 3 major properties of an ideal drug?
Effectivess: elcits the intended response
Selectivity: produces only the response for which it is given.
safety: doesn't produce harmful effect.
what is pharmokinetics
how the body affects the drug.

-ADME

Absorption, Distribution, metabolism, excretion
what is Pharmacodynamics
how the drug affects the body.
Administration
IV,IM,Sub Q, oral
What is HALF LIFE?
time required for the drug to DEC by 50%. & determines the dosing interval and time b/w doses.
*Drugs with Sh. H Lives excreted quickly
*Drugs with Long. H Lives excreted SLOWLY
what is the Dose response relationship?
its the relationship b/w the size of dose and the intensity it produces. it can Inc or Dec.
Receptors
Drugs produce effects by interacting with the body's receptors.

Agonist: Mimic the action of the bodys natural responses (hormones and neurtransmitters)

Antagonist: Blocks the action
Pharmacodynamic Tolerance
Requires higher doses of a med to produce the desired effect.
Metabolic Tolerance
Inc doses of the drug
What are the Five Rights in Nursing
Rt.Drug
Rt.PT
Rt.Dose
Rt.Route
Rt.Time
what is HEMOSTASIS and the 2 stages?
Hemostasis is when bleeding is stopped fm a blood vessel injury.

The stages are PLATELET PLUG and COAGULATION.
COAGULATION
to reinforce the platelet plug with fibrin
PLASMIN
Removal of CLOTS
Process of ANTITHROMBIN
to prevent the widespread of coagulation.
Purpose ANTICOAGULANTS
prevent new clots from happening, does not break it. and dec the prod. of FIBRIN & dec the growth of the present clot.
IND of HEPARIN
used for P.E.D.R.O

Pulomary Emb
Evolving Stroke
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Renal Dialysis
Open Heart Surgery
Adverse Effect of HEPARIN
Triple H

Hemorrage
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Heparin IND -Thrombocytopenia
Drug Interaction with HEPARIN
anything that may cause an INC in bleeding
Protamine Sulfate
an antidote for HEPARIN
Nursing Consideration for HEPARIN
check for Coag. time(aPTT)
-Normal 40 sec 1/2-2x 60-80
-Measure q 4-6hrs
-adjust dose as needed
-once therapeutic check q day
-check for bleeding.
INDICATION for
ENXOAPARIN/ Lovenox
-LM wt Heparin
-treatment or prevention of DVT,Pt on bed rest >5 days, immobile pts, post op surg for hip & knee.
ADVERSE EFFECT for

ENXOPARIN/Lovenox
bleeding and Thrombocytopenia
INDICATION for

WARFARIN/ Coumadin
used for
-long term prophylaxis
-P.A.V-MI
*Pulmonary Emboli
*Atrial Fib
*Valve Repl
* Red. risk of Recurrent MI
DRUG INTERACTION with

WARFARIN/ Coumadin
meds dec effect of Coumadin
-seizeure meds, Oral Ctrp, foods with Vit k

Med INC effects of Coumadin
-ASA,Heparin,Anti-fungal,~antibiotics.
ANTIDOTE for Too much

WARFARIN/ Coumadin
IM for Vit K which will DEC the effect of Coumadin
ANTI-PLATELETS
inhibit platelet aggregation and prevention of arterial thrombosis
INDICATION

ASPIRIN (ASA) Anti-Platelet
used to prevent MI and strokes
ADVERSE EFFECT of

ASPIRIN (ASA) Anti-Platelet
Upset GI, bleeding GI or hemorrhagic Stroke
INDICATION
ADP Receptor Antagonist
CLOPIDOGREL/ Plavix
Prevent strokes and MI
MOA
ADP Receptor Antagonist
CLOPIDOGREL/ Plavix
BLOCKS ADP receptors on platelets preventing aggregation-inactivates platelets. For pts that ca't take ASA takes this. More effective but more expensive & permanent
Adverse Effect
ADP Receptor Antagonist
CLOPIDOGREL/ Plavix
same as ASA but less bleeding
MOA
Glycoprotein Receptor Antagonist
ABCIXIMAB/ ReoPro
cause reversible blockage of platelet receptors, inhibits final step in platelet aggreg.
INDICATION
Glycoprotein Receptor Antagonist
ABCIXIMAB/ ReoPro
acute short term use, IV only to prevent ischemic events in pts with acute coronary syndrom, coronary interventions. not use frequently
Adverse Effect
Glycoprotein Receptor Antagonist
ABCIXIMAB/ ReoPro
bleeding
Thrombolytics
break up clots, for severe thrombic disease
Thrombolytics-
MOA
StreptokinASE
An enzyme that converts plasminogen to plasmin which digests thrombi
INDICATIONS FOR

StreptokinASE
M.A.D.U
-Massive Pulmonary Emb
-Acute MI
-DVT
-Unclot Vascular Catheters
M.A.D.U
Adverse Effect

StreptokinASE
-bleeding
-intracranial hemorrhage
-antibody production->allergic reaction
What do BETA BLOCKERS DO?
Bloks Beta 1 Receptors N dec Sympathetic effects
-Dec HR
-Dec force of Contraction
-REDU. speeed of impulse conduction
MEDS for CHF
What do ACE INHIBITORS?
-Blocks ezyme that coverts Ang 1 to Ang 2. Which causes
-Vasodilation
-Dec BP
-Prevent further damage to the hear and blood veseel
MEDS FOR CHF
What do Diuretics do?
-INC renal excretion of H20, NA and E-lytes
-Inc Urine output
-DEC fluid Overload=DEC Pulmonary N Peripheral Edema
MED for CHF
LOOP-LASIC and Thiazides
DIRURETICS that
INC renal excretion of H20, NA and E-lytes
-Inc Urine output
-DEC fluid Overload=DEC Pulmonary N Peripheral Edema
MEDS for CHF
MOA

Alpha 2-Agonists
-RED firing of Sympathetic Neurons
-Suppress sympathetic outflow to heart and blood Vessels
-Dec Vasoconstriction
-Dec BP
Anti-hypertensive Meds
CLONIDINE/ Catapress
They are Alpha 2-Agonists meds
Anti-hypertensive Meds
MOA

ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR BLOCKERS
-Blocks the effects of Alpha 1 receptors
-Dec BP -> dilated Blood vessel
-Dec Cardiac Output
Anti-hypertensive Meds
PRAZOSIN/ Minipress
They are ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR BLOCKERS
Anti-hypertensive Meds
MOA

Beta Adrenergic Blockers
-Blocks Beta 1 receptors in heart, blocks sympathetic effects on heart
-BLocks Beta 1 receptor in Kidney causing DEC in RENIN
-DEC HR
-DEC force of contraction
-DEC velocity of impulse Conduction
Anti-hypertensive Meds
DEF

MYOCARDINAL INFARCTION

(MI)
this happpens of poor blood flow to the heart and the cardiac tissue is destroyed
irreversible hypoxia
cell death
another name for heart attack
What's in the Renal System?
-ACE INHIBITORS
-ANGEOTENSIN 2 Receptors (ARB)
-Diuretics
D.A.A or A.A.D
What's in the Nervous System?
-Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB)
-Direct Acting Vasodilators
-Sympatholytics-Beta-Alpha-Alpha 2
Ca.D.S
Where are the Anti-hypetensive Sites of Action
-Renal System
-Nervous System
R.N
What are the BP for Pre-HTN
SBP of 120-139
DBP of 80-89
Cardio Vascual Drug 2/ HTN
DEF of HYPERTENSION
BP for Sys >/=120
BP for DS >/90
Normal BP 120/ 90
MOA of

GEMFIBROZIL/ lopid
-DEC Triglycerides levels
-INC HDL no effect on LDL's
Cholesterol and LP
MOA of

NIACIIN
-DEC production of VLDL
-DEC LDL
-INC HDL

**not used a lot of because of the adverse effect
Cholesterol and LP
MOA of

QUESTROM, WELCHOL, CLOESTID
-Prevent absorption of Bile Acid
-Bind w. Bile acids in GI Tract
-Risk taking it with another med
Cholesterol and LP
MOA of

HMG CoA
-Inhibtis REDUCTASE an enzyme in Cholesterol biosynthesis
-INC LDL receptors in liver
-Removes LDL's from blood
-DEC LDL = INC HDL
Cholesterol and LP
What is HDL and its MOA
High Density Lipoproteins

-transports cholesterol from tissues back to the liver= Cholesterol Removal
Cholesterol and LP
What is LDL and its MOA
Low Density Lipoproteins

-Transports Cholesterol to Tissues
Cholesterol and LP
What is VLDL and its MOA
Very Low Density Lipoproteins

-Transports trigyercides to Tissues
Cholesterol and LP
What are LIPOPROTEINS and the 3 types?
-Fucntions as carriers for transporting Lipids
-VLDL
-LDL
-HDL
Cholesterol and LP
what is CHOLESTEROL
Componets of cell membranes, required for syntheis for hormones of Bile Salts
Lipid-Lowering Agents
MOA of

OPRELVEKIN/ Interleukin-11
-INC in Platelets
-stimulates production of Stem cells and MEGAKARYOTES
Thrombopoietic Growth Factors
MOA of

FILGRASTIM G-CSF/ Neupogen
Given IV OR SQ

-acts on the cells in the bone marron to INC prod. of neutrophils and make the mature ones more effective.
INC WBC
MOA of

EPOETIN ALPHA/ Epogen, Procrit
-stimulates the bone marrow to INC RBC
-Given IV , 3x's week
INC RBC
What is Angina?
-Frquent chest pains, due to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
-Lack of blood flow and oxy to the heart
-usually happens 3-5min
Heart Issues
What are the 3 types of ANEMIA?
-Folic Acid def. Anemia
-Iron def. Anemia
-Vit B12 def. Anemia
DEFIECIENCY of RBC

F.I.V
What causes ANEMIA?
by blood loss, impaired production of RBC or INC destruction of RBC
RBC Loss
Production of RBC?
Its regulated by oxy and hormone ERTHROPOEITIN (found in the KIDNEYS) which will INC the PRod in the BONE MARROW
HORMONE and Bone MARROW
What is the MOA of
NTG (NITROGLYCERIN)?
acts directly on the VASCULAR Smooth muscle, veins and causing VASODILATION.
-DEC Venous return to the heart
-DEC Ventricular filling
-DEC Pre-Load
-DEC Oxy demand
Angina MEDS
DRUG: Ferrous Sulfate
The patient lacks of Iron
-Iron is needed for hemoglobin
Iron Def. Anemia
What is DEFUROXAMINE use
Its use when there is too much IRON in the blood N this absorbs the IRON
ANTIDOTE FOR IRON in the BLOOD
CYANOCOBALAMIN is use for?
Vit B 12 is needed for DNA SYNTHEIS for RBC MATURATION. This happens when the pt loss the intrinsic factor of absorbing it.
Vit B12 DEF. Anemia
-Pernicious Anemia
CCB and Blood Vessels
Calcium regualtes smooth muscle contraction.

-If blocked, smooth muscle contraction is prevented therefore it leads to vasodilation.
Anti-hypertensive Meds
MOA of

Calcium Channel Blockers?

(CCB)
Blocks entry of CA into Cells from the Blood Vessel and heart.
Anti-hypertensive Meds
MEDS that End in

"DIPINE"
Are CCB, Potent VASODILATORS, NO EFFECT in the HEART
Anti-hypertensive Meds
What are the 2 types of VaSoDiLaToRs and its MOA?
-Arterio
-Venous
**its purpose to relax smooth muscle in blood vessels.
Anti-hypertensive Meds
What do ARTERIO DILATORS do?
-DEC peripheral Vascular Resistance
-DEC Afterload
-DEC Work of the heart
-INC Cardiac Output
-INC Tissue Perfusion
Anti-hypertensive Meds
What do Venous Dilators do?
-DEC force when Blood is Returned to the Heart
-DEC Ventricular Filling
-DEC PRELOAD
-DEC force of CONTRACTION
Anti-hypertensive Meds
HYDRALIZINE/ Apresoline
Venous Dilator MEd
Anti-hypertensive Meds
MEDS that end with "PRIL"?
are ACE INHIBITORS
BENAZEPRIL,CATAOPRIL,
MEDS that end with "SARTAN"
are(Angiotensin 2 Receptor Blockers) ARB's MEDS

-Vasodilation
-DEC Blood Volume
-Rev. Pathological changes in the Heart
LOSARTAN, VALSARTAN
4 types of of DIURECTICS?
High Ceiling LOOP
OSMOTIC
THIAZIDES
POTASSSIUM SPARING
Anti-hypertensive Meds

H.O.T. PS.
What are the NEUROTransmittors of the PNS?
Acetylcholine ACH, NoreEpinePhrine, Dopamine and Epinephrine
A.N.D.E
What are the Receptors in the PNS?
Cholinergic and Adrenergic
C.A
Which receptor in the PNS responds to Epinephrine and NP?
Adrenergic
Which receptor in the PNS responds to Acetylcholine (ACH)?
Cholinergic
What are the subtypes receptors for Adrenergic?
Alpha 1 and 2 and Beta 1 and 2
What are the Function of the ALPHA 1 receptors in the Adrenergic?
-Dilation of the Iris
-Vasoconstriction
-Bladde Contraction
-Ejaculation
Di.V & Bc. E
Where are the Beta 1 receptor located?
in the Cardiac Region and Kidney region
K.C
What are the functions of the Beta 1 receptor in the Heart?
-INC HR
-INC CONTRACTION
-INC Velocity of Impulse in the AV Node
Same for anti-hypertensive Meds!
What are the functions of the Beta 1 receptor in the Kidney?
-Release of RENIN
-INC Vasoconstriction