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54 Cards in this Set

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Anti microbial agents are used to: (2)
1. Prevent infection
2. Treat infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms
Antimicrobial applies to several categoris of agents including: (5)
1. Antivirals
2. Antibacterials
3. Antiprotozoas
4. Antifungals
5. Antiparasitic
Natural chemicals produced by microorganisms that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms and adjuncts that assist the patient's own defenses to precent or diminish the severity of postoperative surgical site infections are knownn as:
Antibiotics
The prevention of postoperative wound infections is known as:
Prophylaxis
Postoperative wound infections are commonly referred to as:
SSI (surgical site infections)
The body's first line of defense is the:
Skin
The source of pathogenic microorganisms can be one of the following:
Endogenous or Exogenous
Comes from the patient's own bacteria
Endogenous
Comes from outside the patient
Exogenous
Process of growing microbes in culture to determine the infecting pathogen and exposure to various antibiotics to determine which agent will best inhibit pathogens growth
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)
Rapid identification test that assists physicians in prescribing an initial course of antibiotic therapy, usually performed in a surgical procedure called I&D.
Gram Staining
Study of shapes
Morphology
Spirilla
spiral shaped
Bacilli
rod or oblong shaped
Cocci
round or spherical shaped
Must act against pathogenic microorganisms without harming host cells
Selective Toxicity
Early or pre nucleus
prokaryotes
(karyote meants nucleus)
True karyotes
Eukaryotes
(ex: plants, animals, fungi)
Antimicrobial Action (5)
1. inhibit cell wall sythesis
2. inhibit production of nucleic acid
3. interfere with protein synthesis
4. interfere with cell metabolism
5. alter cell membrane function
Agents that kill bacteria
Bactericidal
Agents that inhibit bacterial growth and rely on host's own immune system to take over once the pathogenic microorganism is suppressed
Bacteriostatic
Antimicrobial agent with wide range of activity, usually effective against both gram positive and negative bacteria
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Antimicrobial agent with smaller range of activity, usually effective against only one bacteria, gram positive or gram negative
Narrow spectrum antibiotic
Antimicrobial agent effective against just one species of microorganisms
Limited spectrum antibiotic
Ability of some strains of pathogenic microbes to prevent or overcome the activity of antimicrobial agents and mechanisms generally fit into 3 major categories
Antibiotic resistance
3 major categories antibiotic resistance:
1. The microorganism may manufacture microbial enzymes that inactivatethe antibiotic
2. The cell membrane may be altered to prevent the antibiotic from entering the cell
3. the target area, such as ribosome, may be altered so that the agen is no longer effective
resistant to methicillin, found in mucous membranes
Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcuu Aureus (MRSA)
resistant to vancomycin, found in the digestive tract
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
Also called antibiotics, can be administered intravenously, topically in irrigation solutions, or as ointments in surgical procedures
Antibacterial Agents
5 major groups of antibiotics
1. Aminoglycosides
2. Cephalosporins
3. Macrolides
4. Penicillins
5. Tetracyclines
New class of synthetic antibiotics, inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by targeting a specific ribisomal subunit, administered orally, or intravenously, and used to treat infectiosn caused by MRSA and VRE
Oxazolidinone
inhibit DNA-gyrase (a protein needed for bacterial replication), low toxicity, and a broad spectrum activity against gram positive and negative aerobes, administered orally or intravenously, used to treat systemic infections such as UTIs
Quinolones
Not really antibiotics, they are antimicrobials commonly known as sulfa drugs, interfere with cell metabolism by inhibiting bacterial synthesis of folic acid, limited in use because of increasing microbial resistance but are still prescribed for non obstructed UTIs, severe burns, and superficial eye infections, administered orally, topically, and occassionally intravenously
Sulfonamides
Example of Quinolones
Cipro
Example of Sulfonamides
Silvadene
Synthetic antibiotic intended for intravenous administration, bactericidal against anaerobic gram positive and negative bacilli, used for prophylaxis in colorectal procedures
Metronidazole
Example of metronidazole
Flagyl
Antibiotic used to treat infections caused by MRSA, bactericidal only against gram positive bacteria, blocks a reaction needed to form crosslinks in the cell wall, also alters cell membrane permeability and interferes with RNA synthesis, administered intravenously
Vancomycin
Example of Vancomycin
Vanocin
Antibiotics combined with other drugs and used to treat specific conditions are known as:
Combination Agents
Used in opthalmic surgery, combination of neomycin and polymixin B sulfate, an antibiotic and an anti inflammatory, also available combined with bacitracin in an ointment
Cortisporin
Used primarily in abdominal and urological surgical procedures, combination of neomycin and polymixin B sulfate, an antibiotic and an anti inflammatory
Neosporin G.U. Irrigant
First broad spectrum antibiotic obtained from cultures, bacteriostatic against many gram positive and negative microbes, bind to the bacterial ribosomal subunit, interfering with protein synthesis, use is limited because of antibiotic resistance development, used primarily to treat acne, rickettsial infections
Tetracyclines
Interfere with protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes, bactericidal, and active against aerobic, and gram negative bacteria, provides some activity against gram positive organisms. Poorly absorbed orally. Indicated for short term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible organisms
Aminoglycosides
Broad spectrum antibiotics, bactericidal, and target cell wall synthesis, classified into 4 generations based on ranges of activity
Cephalosporins
generation active against many gram positive and some gram negative microbes
1st generation
generation effective on a wider variety of gram negative, but fewer gram positive microbes
2nd generation
generation with wider range of activity and effective against gram negative microbes than 2nd generaion, but less effecitve on gram positive microbes
3rd generation
generation that has an extended spectrum on both gram positive and negative microbes
4th generation
Used as prophylaxis in a variety of surgical procedures and often given when patients are allergic to penicillin
Cephalosporins
Include erhytromycins, and are a group of broad spectrum agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the prokaryotic ribisomal subunity. Bacteriostatic for most bacteria and are bactericidal for several gram positive bacteria
Macrolides
First antibiotic developed, extracted from mold, effective against a wide variety of gram positive and negative microbes, bactericidal, and block an enzyme needed to strengthen the bacterial cell wall, so cell eventually ruptures
Penicillins
4 major categories of penicillin
1. Natural
2. Penicillinase resistant
3. Aminopenicillins
4. Broad spectrum
To be effective, antimicrobial agents must have: (3)
1. Selective toxicity
2. Prokaryotes
3. Eukaryotes