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20 Cards in this Set

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This potent vasodilator, used int he tx of malignant htn, can cause significant postural hypotension
Nitroprusside- functions to stimulate Guanyl cyclase with an increase in cGMP within smooth muscle of the vasculature. Prolonged infusion result in Cyanide poisoning due to release of CN-
MOA of nitroprusside
stimulate guanyl cyclase, with an increase in cGMP, within smooth muscle, causing vasodilation.
ADR of nitroprusside
Cyanide toxicity
Potassium sparing diuretic is an aldosterone antagonist that functions at the collecting tubules
Spirinolactone- increases p450 and causes gynecomastia and other androgenic effects
Extremely short-actin agent (15-20 seconds) admin IV for the control of atrioventricular(AV) nodal arrythmias
Adenosine
ADR of adenosine
flushing and hypotension are short lived as well and do not limit the use of this agent
Used for the tx of CHF, this agent contains two isomers one with nonselective beta blocking and one with alpha1 blocking activity
Carvedilol- labetalol has similar properties and has four diasteremomers the RR entiomer is a nonselective Beta blocker and the SR entiomer is and alpha 1 blocker)
Bile-acid binding resins used in the management of hyperlipediemia
Cholestyramine/colestipol- bind bile acids, preventing enterohepatic recycling, thus diverting hepatic efforts to renew bile acids, instead of producing plasma lipids
These agents function to slow conduction velocity by slowing the rate and rise of AP
Class 1A Antiarryhythmics (Quinidine/ Procainamide/ Diisopyramide)- these agents help maintain sinoatrial (SA) rhythm after cardioconversion for a-fib, and may cause torsade de pointes arrythmias.
ADR of Quinidine
may cause cinchonism- headache, vertigo and tinnitus
Function to decrease the action potential duration by shortening the repolarization phase
Class 1B Antiarrhythmics (lidocaine/ mexiletine/ Tocainide/ phenytoin) - these agents are used for the tx of ventricular arrythmias, as well as for digitoxin-induced arrhythmias
Used for the tx of refractory ventricular arrhythmias, as well as for rapid atrial arrythmias associated with Wolff- Parkinson- White syndrome
Class 1C antiarrhytmics( flecainide/ propafenone)- function to slow conduction velocity in the atrial and ventricular cells but do not affect the AP. Thye typically are used as a last resort, as their use is associated with drug- induced arrhythmias
These agents decrease the automaticity of the pacemaker tissue of the heart, resulting in prolonged atrioventricular and slower HR
Class 2 antiarrythmics (propanalol/esmolol) - these beta blockers decrease cAMP levels, resulting in reduced Na+ and Ca2+ currents. These agents are not used in cases of CHF
Used for the tx of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias; many of these agents can ppt torsade de pointe arrhythmias
Class 3 Antiarrhythmics (sotalol/ibutilide/ bretylium/ amiodarone)- these agents prolong the AP by blocking potassium channels.
Used for atrial arrhythmias and nodal re-entry, as well as htn and angina, these agnets inhibit Ca2+ voltage channels.
Class IV antiarrhythmics (verapamil. diltiazem)- note nifedipine has a similar MOA, but it is used only for htn and angina; as it as no effect on heart tissue, it is not a class iv agent.
Antibiotic associated with the development of psuedomembraneous colitis, due to overgroth of clostridium difficile
Clindamycin- a bacteriostatic inhibitor of protein synthesis, methylating the 50s ribosomal subunit, used in the tx of serious anaerobic infections due to bacteroides spp.
Potassium- sparing diuretics that do not have anti- androgenic effects
Amiloride/ Triamterene- blocks Na channels in the cortical collecting tubules; may cause hyperkalemiic metabolic acidosis)
Found in Thick ascending loop of Henle, which potent class of diuretics inhibits the cotransporter Na+/K+/Cl-
Furosemide/ Butamide- these sulfa drugs can cause hypercalcemia, ototoxicity, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis; ethacrynic acid is a non-sulfa drug with similar effects
What functions early in the distal convoluted tubule by inhibiting NaCl reabsorption.
Hydrochlorothiazide
ADR of Hydrochlorothiazide
major side effects include hypokalemia, alkalosis, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia