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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
WHAT IS THE MAIN INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE CNS?
GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID (GABA)
WHERE IS GABA SYNTHESIZED AND STORED?
IN
THE PRESYNAPTIC AXON TERMINALS
WHAT CAUSES THE RELEASE OF GABA INTO THE SYNAPSE WHERE IT ACTS?
CALCIUM IONS
WHERE DOES GABA ACT?
ON THE GABA RECEPTORS LOCATED ON THE POST-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANE OF TARGET NEURONS
WHAT KIND OF RECEPTORS ARE GABA RECEPTORS?
CHANNEL RECEPTORS
WHEN GABA ATTACHES TO ITS RECEPTORS THE CENTRAL CHANNEL OPENS AND ALLOWS WHAT KIND OF IONS TO PASS THROUGH?
NEGATIVELY CHARGED CHLORIDE IONS.
WHAT FUNCTION DOES NEGATIVELY CHARGED CHLORIDE IONS HAVE ON THE NEURON?
DECREASE ITS EXCITABILITY
THE INWARD FLUX OF CHLORIDE IONS RESULTS IS WHAT CHANGE TO THE CELL?
HYPERPOLARIZATION
HYPERPOLARIZATION OF THE NEURON HAS WHAT EFFECT ON EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS?
RESISTANCE TO EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS
WHAT TWO DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS ABIND TO THE GABA RECEPTOR AND ENHANCE THE EFFECT OF GABA?
BARBITUATES AND BENSOS
WHAT TWO DRUGS PROBABLY ENHANCE THE EFFECT OF GABA DECREASING NEURONAL EXCITABILITY?
PROPOFOL AND ETOMIDATE
WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF GABA RECEPTORS?
GABA A, B, AND C
WHAT TYPE OF GABA RECEPTORS ARE GABA A AND C
HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT?
IONOTROPIC.
THESE ION CHANNELS ARE DIFFERENT BECAUSE NEUROTRANSIMTTERS ATTACH DIRECTLY IN ORDER TO OPEN THEM.
WHAT KIND OF GABA RECEPTOR IS GABA B?
WHAT IS THE UNIQUE PROPERTY?
METABOTROPIC RECEPTOR
THEY ARE SEPARATED FROM THE ION CHANNELS AND MAKE LINKAGE BY MEANS OF G PROTEIN.
GABA B RECEPTORS WILL OPEN WHAT CHANNELS ON THE POST SYNAPTIC MEMBRANE? PrESYNAPTIC MEMB.? INVOLVING WHAT?
K
CA
THRU A SECOND MESSENGER INVOLVING G PROTEIN
THE GABA RECEPTOR IS COMPRISED OF HOW MANY SUBUNITS? WHAT IS THE PRIMARY BINDING SITE FOR GABA?
5
BETA SUBUNITS
WHAT ARE THREE COMPONENTS OF THE PERFECT ANESTHESIA?
ANALGESIA
AMNESIA
MUSCLE RELAXATION
WHEN GABA ALLOWS THE ENTERING OF CHLORIDE CAUSING HYPERPOLARIZATION WHAT IS THE RESULT?
INHIBITION ON NEURONAL ACTIVITY AND A GENERAL ANXIOLITIC EFFECT
SECONDARY GABA BINDING SITES FOR OTHER MOLECULES INCLUDE (5)?
BARBITUATES, BENZODIAZEPINES, ALCOHOL, PROPOFOL AND ETOMIDATE
WHAT NON-BARBITUATE IS RELATED TO PCP?
KETAMINE
WHAT NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE CNS BINDS TO NMDA?
HOW IS IT CLASSIFIED?
GLUTAMATE
EXCITATORY
WHEN THE NMDA RECEPTOR OPENS THE ION CHANNEL WHAT ELEMENTS MOVE IN?
AND WHAT HAPPENS TO THE POST SYNAPTIC NEURON?
K
NA
CA
GETS DEPOLARIZED
WHAT DRUG INHIBITS THE NMDA RECEPTOR RESPONSE TO GLUTAMATE?
KETAMINE
WHAT BARBITURATE IS NOT USED IN THE US?
THIAMYLAL
WHAT ARE THE TWO SHORT ACTING BARBITURATES?
THIOPENTAL (PENTOTHAL)
METHOHEXITAL (BREVITAL)
BARBITURATES HAVE MANY CNS ACTIONS, BUT THE DEPRESSION OF WHAT AREA CONTRIBUTES TO THE SEDATION AND HYPNOSIS?
RAS
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
WHAT AREA ANATOMICAL AREA IS IMPORTANT IN THE MAINTENANCE OF WAKEFULNESS?
RAS.
(IS NOT IN THE CNS)
WHAT IS THE PH OF 2.5% THIOPENTAL
10.5
WHAT KIND OF A SOLUTION(ALKALINE OR ACID) IS THIOPENTAL?
INCOMPATIBLE WITH WHAT DRUGS(3)?
ALKALINE
OPIOIDS, CHATECHOLAMINES AND NMBAs WHICH ARE ACIDIC.
THIOPENTAL CANNOT BE RECONSTITUTED IN WHAT iv FLUID? WHY?
LR
WILL PRECIPITATE
THE ALKALINE PROPERTIES OF THIOPENTAL PROVIDE WHAT TYPE OF EFFECT?
BACTERIOSTATIC
WHAT ARE THE PREPARATION SOLUTIONS IN PERCENTAGE FOR THIOPENTAL AND METHOHEXITAL?
THIOPENTAL = 2.5%
METHOHEXITAL = 1%
THE ADDITION OF A METHYL GROUP TO THE BARBITURIC ACID RING (METHOHEXITAL)RESULTS IN?
SHORT DURATION OF ACTION
(TAKING AWAY THE ANTICONVULSANT PROPERTY, CAN CAUSE SEIZURES AND EXTRAPIRAMIDAL SIDE EFFECTS
WHEN CHLORIDE CONDUCTANCE INCREASES, IT LEADS TO HYPERPOLARIZATION. IN SUCH STATE, WHAT HAPPENS TO CELL?
IT DOES NOT FIRE.
BARBITURATES CAN DECREASE PAIN THRESHOLD. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
CAN MAKE PAIN MORE INTENSE. HAVE NO SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXATION
BARBITURATES CAN CAUSE THESE THREE NEURO SIDE EFFECTS.
SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
MYOCLONUS
SEIZURES
FOR BARBITURATE ACTION WHAT SUBUNIT IS NOT REQUIRED?
GAMMA
THE ALPHA AND BETA ARE USED
BARBITURATES ACT ON THE GABA INDUCED CHLORIDE CURRENTS BY WHAT ACTION?
PROLONGING THE OPEN TIME PERIOD INSTEAD OF INCREASING THE FREQUENCY OF CHANNEL OPENINGS.(BARBS INCREASE FREQ OF OPENINGS)
WHAT EFFECT DO MOST ANESTHESIA DRUGS HAVE ON CV SYSTEM?
DEPRESANT EFFECT
WHAT TWO DRUGS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BARBITURATES?
THIOPENTAL AND METHOHEXITAL
WHAT THREE DRUGS ARE CLASSIFIED AS NONBARBITURATES?
PROPOFOL
ETOMIDATE
KETAMINE
PROMPT AWAKENING AFTER A SINGLE DOSE OF THIOPENTAL REFLECTS WHAT PROPERTY? IS NOT METABOLISM.
REDISTRIBUTION
PERCENT OF UNCHANGED BARBITUATES EXCRETED IN THE URINE?
1% WHICH INDICATES BODY METABOLISM OF DRUG
WHAT BARBITUATE BINDS TO PROTEIN 80% AND IS HIGHLY LIPID SOLUBLE?
THIOPENTAL
WHAT DRUG DECREASES THE BINDING OF THIOPENTAL TO PROTEIN?
ASPIRIN.
WHAT DETERMINES DISTRIBUTION OF BARBITURATES IN THE BODY (3) ?AND WHICH IS THE MOST IMPORTANT
LIPID SOLUBILITY(MOST IMPORTANT)
PROTEIN BINDING
DEGREE OF IONIZATION