Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most drugs in solution are either _____ or ________, or ________ or _________
weak acids or weak bases,
nonionized, ionized
the ___form of drug is more lipid soluble
nonionized
The ______ at a site determines the degree of ionization
pH
HH Equation for an acid:
pKa=pH + log [HA]/[A-]
HH Equation for a base:
pKa=pH + log i/n
The degree of ionization is important where great changes in pH such as:
stomach, and in urine
What is ion-trapping?
at equilibrium, the total drug (n+i) is greater where conditions favor ionization (weak acids)
What are some well perfused organs?
Brain, lungs, liver
What are some poorly perfused organs?
bone and adipose tissue
What is the effect on glomerular filtration of protein binding?
Less filtered-only free drug is filtered (not important if in kidney/liver)
_____binds acidic drugs such as acetylcholine, barbiturates, penicillin, salicylates, sulfonamides, streptomycin, tetracyclines, warfarin
Albumin
_____ binds basic drugs such as Vit. B12, thyroxine, glucocorticoids
a1-acid glycoprotein
____ fluctuates rapidly and varies among patients with age, stress, inflammation
a1-acid glycoprotein
Name three drugs that bind to the a1-acid glycoproteins:
Vit B12, thyroxine, glucocorticoids
2 other glycoproteins:
CBG, TBG coticosteroid and thyroxine binding globulin
2 major factors inhibit CNS drug distribution:
BBB, CSF production carries it right out of cells
Transplacental distribution affected by:
lipid solubility, simple diffusion
3 other drug distribution barriers:
prostate, testicles, eye globe
Area of trapezoid:
time*(h1+h2)/2
What is bioavailability?
F
fraction of drug that enters systemic circulation
Formula for Amount of drug reaching systemic circulation:
A= F*S*Dose
Equation for equivalent dose:
Dose of new=Amount absorbed old/S*F of new form
Volume of distribution formula:
Vd=(dose*F*S)/drug concentration initially achieved
Loading dose equation:
Loading Dose= [Vd*patients weight in kg*Cpdesired]/S*F
Loading dose if want to ramp up loading dose:
Ld=[Vd*pts weight kg*(Cpdesired-Cpinitial)]/S*F*