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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PHARMOKINETICS
a particular drug's onset of action, peak effect, and duration of action
ABSORPTION
movement of a drug from its site of administration into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues.
BIOAVAILABILITY
a measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (0-100%)
FIRST PASS EFFECT
the intial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the blood stream
BIOEQUIVALENT
2 meds have same bioavailability and same concentration of active ingredient
ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION
how drug is administered effects rate of extent of absorption of that drug (enteral/gi, parenteral, and topical)
enteral
drug absorbed into the systemic circulation though the mucosa of stomach or small intestine
sublingual and buccal
absorbed into the vascularized tissue under the tongue/oral mucosa
parenteral
a general term meaning any route of administration other than the gi tract. ex)subcutaneous(fatty subcutaneous), intradermal(under more superficial), and intramuscular layer(muscular layer)
topical
applied to skin, eyes, ears, nose, lungs, rectum or vagina
DISTRIBUTION
transport of drug in the body by the bloodstream to its site of action. areas of rapid distribution include the heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. slow-muscle, skin, fat
DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION
unpredictable drug response and occurs when the presence of one drug decreases or increases the actions of another drug administered given at same time
METABOLISM
aka biotransformation, because it involves the biochemical alteration of a drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound, or more potent active metabolite (as in the conversion of an inactive prodrug to its active form)
the liver is the most important organism involved in metabolism of drugs. other tissues are skeletal muscle, kidneys, lungs, plasma, intestinal mucosa
CYTOCHROME P-450
general name for large class of enzymes (found especially in the liver) that play a significant rule in drug metabolism
SUBSTRATE
a (drug or natural biochemical in teh body) on which enzyme acts
EXCRETION
elimination of drugs from the body. primary organ responsible is the kidney. also liver and bowel
glomerular filtration
active tubular reabsorption and active tubular secretion
HALF-LIFE
the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body
steady state
the physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed w/each dose
ONSET, PEAK, DURATION
used to describe drug effects
DRUG EFFECTS
physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. hey can be theraputic or toxic and constitute how the function of the body is affected as a whole by the drug
ONSET OF ACTION
the time required for a drug to elicit a theraputic response after doing
PEAK EFFECT
the time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body
DURATION OF ACTION
the length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response
PEAK LEVEL
the maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
TROUGH LEVEL
the lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
TOXICITY
the condition of producing adverse bodily effects of drugs and other chemicals in living systems, their detection, and treatment to counter act their poisonous effect
THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING
the process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of patient's drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages w/the joint goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity
PHARMACODYNAMICS
the study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. it examines the physiochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions w/body receptors
therapeutic effect
the desired or intended effect of a particular medication
mechanism of action
drugs can produce actions, but cannot cause a cell or tissue to perform a function that is not part of its natural physiology
receptor interactions
entails the selective joining of the drug molecule w/a reactive site on the surface of a cell or tissue. once a drug binds to and interacts w/receptor, a pharmacologic response is produced. the degree to which a drug attaches to and binds w/a receptor is call its affinity
enzyme
protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the body's own physiologic processes as well as those related to drug metabolism
nonselective interactions
drugs with this do not interact with receptors or enzymes to alter physiologic or biologic function of he body, instead, cell membrane and various cellular processes such as metabolic activities are their main targets
PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
the treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs
contraindiction
any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other paient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undersirable
acute therapy
involves more intensive drug treatment and is implemented in the acutely ill (those w/rapid onset of illness) or even critically ill
maintenance therapy
does prevent progression of a disease or condition
supplemental therapy
supplies body with substance needed to maintain normal function
palliative therapy
make patient as comfortable as possible
palliative therapy
make patient as comfortable as possible
supportive therapy
maintains the integrity of body functions while the patient is recovering from illness or trauma
PROPHYLACTIC THERAPY
prevent illness, based on science
EMPIRIC THERAPY
prevent illness based on experience
monitoring
evaluation after therapy is implemented
adverse effects
any undesirable bodily effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs. includes side effects and adverse effects
theraputic index
the ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug. if index is low, the difference between therapeutic and toxic drug concentrations is small, and use of the drug is more hazardous
drug concentration
toxic or therapeutic
tolerance
a decreasing response to repeated drug doses
dependence
a physiologic or psychcologic need for a drug
controlled substances
any drugs listed on of the the "schedules" of the controlled substance act (aka schedule drugs)
informed consent
permission obtained from a patient consenting to the performance of a specific test or procedure. required for most invasive procedures. it is voluntary
investigational drug study
a drug not approved for marketing by fda but available for use in experiments to determine its safety and efficiency has 4 phases of study
phase I
small number of healthy subjects
phase II
small number of volunteers who have the disease the drug is targeting
phase III
large number of patients who are followed by medical research centers. uses different studies and placebos
phase IV
studies are postmarketing studies voluntarily conducted by pharmaceutical companies to obtain further proof of the therapeutic effects of the new drug. class I and class II
Class I
most serious recall. use of drug product carries a reasonable probability of serious adverse health effects or death
Class II
less severe. use of the drug product may result in any significant health problems
cultural considerations
"one size fits all" but may need alterations in drug therapies. (must be sensitive to different cultures): culture, cultural competence, ethnicity, enthnopharmacology, race
OPIOIDS
are synthetic pain-relieving substances that were originally derived from the opium poppy plant. also referred to as narcotics.
high potential for abuse=schedule II
opioid mechanism of action
work by blocking receptors in the central nervous system. when these receptors are blocked, the perception of pain is blocked
opioid indications
intended drug effects are to relieve pain, reduce cough, relieve diarrhea, and induce anesthesia. certain opioids are used to treat opioid addiction
opioid contraindictions
known drug allergy, pregnancy (high dosage or prolonged use is contraindicated), respiratory depression or severe asthma without available resuscitative equipment, and paralytic ileus (bowel paralysis)
opioid adverse effects
CNS: diresis, miosis, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression. non-CNS: histamine release can cause vasodilation leading to hypotension, spasms of colol leading to constipation, increased contractions of the ureter resulting in decreased uring flow, and dilation of cutaneous blood veselse leading to flushing of the skin of the face, neck, and upper thorax
STIMULANTS
An agent, action, or condition that elicits or accelerates a physiological or psychological activity or response. highly addictive
stimulant mechanism of action
work by releasing biogenic amines from their storage sites in the nerve terminals. the primary biogenic amine released is norepinephrine, and stimulates the CNS
stimulant indications
treatment of ADD ADHD, used to prevent or reverse fatigue and sleep, such as when they are used to treat narcolepsy, also have a slight analgesic effect.
stimulant contraindictions
drug allergy, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, states of agitation, hypertension, known istory of drug abuse, and tourette's syndrome
stimulant adverse effects
reslessness, syncope (fainting), dizziness, tremor, hyperactive reflexes, talkativeness, tenseness, irritability, weakness, insomnia, fever, and sometimes euphoria, confusion, aggression, increased libido, anxitey, delirium, paranoid hallucinations, panic states, and suicidal or homicidal tendencies
DEPRESSANTS
Drugs that relieve anxiety, irritability and tension when used as intended. also used to treat seizure disorders and induce anesthesia. two classifications: benzodiapines, barbituates
depressant mechanism of actions
both work by increasing the action of GABA. GABA is an amino acid in he brain that inhibits nerve transmission in the CNS. the alteration of GABA action in the CNS results in relief of anxiety, sedation, and muscle relaxation
depressant indications
Benzodiapines: more widely used and abused, more commonly prescribed because they are felt by many to be safer. used to relieve anxiety, induce sleep, sedate, and prevent seizures. Barbiturates: used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anticonvulsants and to induce anethesia
depressant contraindictions
drug allergy, dyspnea or airway obstruction, narrow-angle glaucoma, and prophyria (metabolic disorder)
depressant adverse effects
overexpression of their therapeutic effects. drowsiness, sedation, loss of coordination, dizziness, blurred vision, headaches and paradoxical reactions, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, abdominal cramping.
ALCOHOL
"elixir of life" depressant
alcohol mechanism of actions
causes CNS depression by dissolving in lipid membranes in the CNS
alcohol indications
is an excellent solvent for many drugs and is commonly employed as a vehicle for medicinal mixtures.
alcohol contraindictions
drug allergy, dyspnea or airway obstruction, narrow-angle glaucoma, and prophyria (metabolic disorder)
alcohol adverse effects
serious neurologic and mental disorders that may develop into seizures. nutritional and vitaman deficiencies especially of the B vitamins, can occur and can lead to wernicke's encephalopathy, korsakoff's psychosis, polyneuritis and nicotinic acid deficiency encephalopthy
NICOTINE
leaves of tobacco by posselt and reimann.
nicotine mechanism of action
works by directly stimulating the autonomic ganglia of the nicotinic receptors
nicotine indications
the nicotine found in nature has no known therapeutic uses, medically significant because of its addictive and toxic properies
nicotine adverse effects
CNS: produce tremors and convulsions, repiratory stimulation
NURSING PROCESS
an organizational framework for the practice of nursing. it encompasses all steps taken by the nurse in caring for a patient: assesment diagnoses, planning implementation, evaluation
assesment
data is collected and reviewed. subjective and objective
diagnosis
developed by nurses and are used as a means of communicating and sharing information about the patient and the patient experience. nanda.. sntence
planning
identification of goals and outcome criteria.
goals
objective, measurable, and relistic, with an established time period for achievement of the outcomes
implementation
initiation and completion of specific actions by the nurse
evaluation
evaluate nursing processes and reassess
rights of drug administration
right drug, right dose, right time, right route, right patient
three checks of medication administration
first check when you're taking out the medication from the cabinet.
second check after you've taken out all the medication from the cabinet and put the drawer back.
third check at the bedside right before you give the patient the medication
understanding medication orders
verbal: repeat order to confirm it with the prescriber spelling the drug name aloud and speaking slowly and clearly. list reason for use, no abbreviations, never assume
error prevention medications
check parameters, assess for effects of drug, all institutional pharmacy departments
understanding a medication label
never assume etc.
medication errors
any preventable ade involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; they may or maynot cause the patient harm
adverse drug event
any undesirable occurence related to administration of or failure to administer a prescribed medication
adverse drug reactions
unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive responses to medications given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose)
medication reconciliation
a procedure implemented by health care providers to continually maintain an accurate and up-t-date list of medications for all patients at every phase of health care that is communicated in a timely manner to al applicable members of the health care team, with the overall goal of dramatically reducing the rate of medication errors; a key strategy of the 100,000 lives campaign