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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a or a with accent above
before
ac
before meals
bid
twice a day
c with accent mark above
with
cap
capsule
d
day
disp
dispense
gm
gram
gr
grain
gtt
drop
h
hour
hs
at bedtime
p with accent mark above
after
pc
after meals
po
by mouth
prn
as required, if needed
q
every
qid
4 times a day
s with accent mark above
without
sig
write (label)
ss with accent marks above
one-half
stat
immediately
tab
tablet
tid
3 times a day
ud
as directed
the study of drugs or chemicals used for edicinal purposes
pharmocology
any substance other than food used in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, treatment or cure of a disease or for the prevention of pregnancy
drug
name given based upon the molecular structure if known or a code given if the chemcal structure is not known
chemical name
a generc name is assigned to a drug by who?
US Adopted Name Council
ex. aspirin
trade name adopted by the manufacturer
brand name
prn
as required, if needed
q
every
qid
4 times a day
s with accent mark above
without
sig
write (label)
ss with accent marks above
one-half
stat
immediately
tab
tablet
tid
3 times a day
ud
as directed
the study of drugs or chemicals used for medicinal purposes
pharmocology
any substance other than food used in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, treatment or cure of a disease or for the prevention of pregnancy
drug
name given based upon the molecular structure if known or a code given if the chemcal structure is not known
chemical name
a generc name is assigned to a drug by who?
US Adopted Name Council
ex. aspirin
trade name adopted by the manufacturer
brand name
Reference Bible
PDR
Reference manuals include
Mosbys, Saunders, PDR, Delmar and the electronic Epocrates.com
a drug substitution where 2 different drugs meet the same chemical AND physical ex. aspirin and acetominophen
chemically equivalent
a drug substitution where the same concentration of therapuedic agent is produced in the blood and tissues
biologically equivalent
a drug substitution where 2 different formulas have the same therapeudic effect in clinical trials
therapuedically equivalent
this agency
- determines physical and chemical standards of a drug
- quality control manufacturing plants
- determines if a drug is safe and effective
FDA
this regulatory agency
- regulates trade practices
- prohibits false advertising
FTC
this regulatory agency
- regulates controlled substances
- in under the US Dept of Justice
DEA
a drug classified based on its mode of action/how does it work. their end result is the same
Biochemical reaction
drugs classified based on what they do within the body
physiologic effects
drugs classified based upon which organ system it targets
organ system
the drug and dose used as a standard of measure for pain. every drug is compared to this standard
10 mg of morphine
the AMOUNT of a drug required to produce a desired effect.
10 mg morphine = 60 mg codine
potency
True or false: efficacy and potency are related
false. more drugs doesn't increase the intensity of the response-leads to adverse effects
the maximum EFFECT of a drug regardless of the dose
efficacy
at least 50% of the people will die if given x amount of dose
LD 50
LD50
1. a drug that likes a particular receptor
2. binds the receptor
3. produces an effect
Agonist
counteracts the effect of the agonist
Antagonist (3 types)
competes for the SAME receptor site as the agonist, if successful it REDUCES the agonists effect
competitive antagonist
this antagonist can be reversed by increasing the concentration of the agonist. this antagonist by itself itself has no effect
competitive antagonist
this antagonist binds to a DIFFERENT receptor site but still reduces the effect of the agonist
noncompetitive antagonist
This antagonist reduces the maximum response of the agonist
noncompetitive antagonist
these 2 types of antagonist work on the same systems
competitive and non competitive
this antagonist has no effect on the agonist. it binds to a DIFFERENT receptor site but produces a effect OPPOSITE the agonist
physiologic antagonist
the time it takes for the drug to take effect
onset
the length of time the effect lasts
duration
a reaction not beneficial to the patient
adverse reaction
effect of the medication that may not be beneficial to the patient
side effect
if a patient is taking a drug how would you list it on the signficant findings chart?
name of drug, what its taken for in (), then list any adverse reactions
all drugs are measured and dispensed in what?
milligrams
1 kilo = __ pounds?
2.2
how many cc's in one ounce ?
30
how many teaspoons in one ounce?
6; 5cc's per teasp. / 30 cc's
how many cc's per teaspoon?
5 cc's
how many milligrams per gram?
1000
how many cc's per tablespoon?
15; 5cc's per teasp. 3 teasp. = 1 tablespoon
how many grains per milligram?
65 mg
1 cc is equivalent to 1 what?
milligram
a drug placed directly into the G.I tract ex. injested, sepository
enteral
drugs introduced by other means than the G.I tract ex. injection, topical, inhilation, transdermal
parenteral
passage from route of dministration into the circulation ex. predominately stomch to bloodstream
adsorption
pasage of drugs into various body fluid compartments like plasma, interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid
distribution
time it takes a drug to fall 1/2 of its blood level concentration. determines the duration of action
half-life
changing of a drug to allow for excretion. (biotransformation) active to inactive or inactive to active
metabolism
drugs can excrete in:
kidneys, saliva, lungs, sweat, GI
true or false: certain drugs will not cross the blood-brain barrier
true
desired effect of a drug
therapeutic effect
undesired effect of a drug
adverse effect
adverse effect caused by too high a dose or decreased metabolism
toxic reaction
adverse effect other than the desired therapeutic effect, dose related. ex. gastric upset with aspirin
side effect
adverse effect unique to one individual race or certain population
idiosyncratic reaction
adverse effect immune system mediated reaction, not dose related
allergic reaction
a drug or food potentiates (increases) or diminishes the action of another drug
drug interaction
an adverse effect of a drug causing birth defects
teratogenic effect
in order to be a true reaction, it has to be mediated by the __ system
immune
in this hypersensitivity reaction T-cells stimulated by a relatively harmless antigen attatch to a tissue cell
Type IV
in this hypersensitiity reaction an immediate, serious reaction in a previously sensitized patient. IgE mediated
Type I
hypersensitivity reaction where ab combines with ag and attatch to the surface of tissue cells. the immune system destroys the tissue
Type II
in this hypersensitivity reaction ab-ag trapped in blood vessel walls activates and stimulates inflamation leading to tissue destruction
Type III
the safetyness of a drug is determined by this. a ratio of LD50:ED50 the greater the # the safer its expected to be
therapeutic index
drugs thought to be therapeudically beneficial require a TI of __ or greater
10
this part of a prescription includes the personal info, Dr. phone #, and DOB and date of prescription
heading
this part of a prescription includes the prescription name ane dosage strength and form of drug
body
this part of a prescription includes the dr's sig, # of refills and DEA # if its a controlled substance
closing
what are the 3 requirements before a dentist can prescribe medication
1. they must be licensed by state board
2. u must be a patient of record
3. legitamate dental reason for prescribing
schedule of controlled substance that has no therapeudic value, has the potential for abuse ex. marajuana, heroine
schedule 1
schedule of controlled substance with a high potntial for abuse, requires written, signed Rx NO REFILLS
Schedule II
Scheule of controlled substance with less abuse potential ex. valium
schedule IV
true or false: research institutions can obtain schedule 1 drugs
true
schedule of controlled substance with the least potential for abuse.
schedule V
a physical or mental sensation of distress or suffering usually due to an underlying etiology physical or emotional damage
pain
the 2 components of pain are
1. perception of pain
2. reaction to pain (levels of threshold)
a pain reducing drug is called an
analgesic
2 types of analgesics are
1. nonnarcotic/nonopiod = PNS
2. narcotic/opiod = CNS
a compound found in the bloodstream, when activated = a component of pain
prostaglandins
true or false: analgesics relieve the source of the pain
false; reduce the pain being PRODUCED not the source of the pain
true or false: non-narcotics inhibit the the making (synthess) of prostaglandins
true; remember reduces pain being PRODUCED
narcotics depress the CNS or PNS nd its perception of pain
CNS
prostaglandins irritate the nerve endings at the site of tissue damage true or false?
true
true or false: narcotics reduce pain reduction and block signals so pain not percieved in the brain (CNS)
false; narcotics DO NOT stop pain production but they DO block signals from reaching the brain (CNS)
non narcotics divided into 2 groups
1. salicylates (aspirin based)
2. NSAID's
tissue damage causes the release of what 4 things?
1. histamine
2. bradykinin
3. prostaglandins
4. seratonin
tissue injury results in what 4 things?
1. vasodilation
2. pain
3. chemotaxis (attraction of neutrophils to the site)
4. edema
true or false: aspirin is a natural product of willow tree bark
true
the peak effect of aspirin occurs after hoe long on an empty stomach?
30 minutes
how does aspirin reduce fever?
reduces leukocyte pyrogens
aspirin is an:
___= reduces pain
___ = reduces body temp
___ = reduces inflammation
___ = reduces platelets
analgesic
antipyretic
anti-inflammatory
anti-platelet
true or false: generic name always in lower case unless at the beginning of a sentence, brand name is always capital
True
how does aspirin decrease swelling and inflammation?
ASA inhibits prostaglandin synthesis = decreased vasodialation and reducing inflammatory edema
how does aspirin slow the clotting mechanism?
inhibits prostayclin and thromboxane a and is DOSE dependant
true or false: every drug will have adverse effects to the stomach
true
why does asprin cause gastric irritation?
prostaglandin inhibtion; prostaglandin reduces gastric acid seretion and stimulates protective mucous secretion
> ACID = < MUCUS = IRRITAION
name adverse effects of aspirin?
1. gastric > acid = irritation
2. large doses triggers chemorecptor in CNS
3. blood too thin to clot
4. Reyes syndrome = brain sweeling, kids/infants prone
5. stillbirths, hemmorage
6. hypersensitivity-allergic reaction 5-15%
what is the LD50 for aspirin?
adults 10-30 gm
children 4 gm
what are some of toxic symptoms of aspirin?
tinnitus: ear rining
headache
nausea
vomitting-chemoreceptors
loss of vision
what is the drug interaction of asprin with warfarin?
competes with aspirin for plasma proteins in the bloodstream. too much warfarin in the blood..too much bleeding
what is the drug interaction of aspirin with probeneid?
low doses inhibits excretion of uric acid = gout

high doses = too much uric acid
what is the drug reaction of aspirin and blood pressure reducing medications?
may counteract blood pressure reducing medications
what does the enteric coating on aspiring do?
dissolves in the sall intestine vs the stomach
what is the normal dose of aspirin for adults/kids
adults 650 mg q 4 h

kids 60-80 mg per kg or 5mg pr lb
name some combinations used with aspirin
1. w/another analgesic
2. w/ sedative
3. w/ buffering agents
4. w/ caffeine
what is the peak for NSAID's on an empty stomach
1-2 hours
how do NSAID's work (similar to aspirin)
inhibit prostaglandin synthesis

used for mild to moderate dental pain
name some adverse reactions to NSAID's
1. inhibits thromboxne production = prolonged bleeding while drug in system

1 day = ibuprofen, 4 days naproxen, 1 wk oxzyprozin

2. kidney failure
3. oral ulcers and xerastomia
4. longer labor-pregnancy
5. secreted in breast milk except IBUPROFEN
what drugs do NSAID's interact with
1. lithium = bipolar disease
2. digoxin = used for CHF
3. cyclosporin = cause not to bind to plasma
4. antagonizes beta blockers, ACE inhibtors and diuretics
Brand names and dose for Ibuprofen
Motrin,Advil more effective than ASA or ASA w/60 mg codine
Brand names and dose for Naproxen
Naprosyn, Alleve
Brand name and dose for Acetaminphen
equal to ASA without the platelet effect, no gastric bleeding and no effect on reducing inflammation
true or false; opioids are controlled substances
true
true or false; opioids work at the PNS by raisn the pain thresholds
false; CNS
how are opiods absorbed?
orally, transmuscosally, trandermally cn be injected by not reccommended; onset within an hour
what is the distribution of opioids?
bound to plasma proteins on a "first pass"
what is the metabolism of opioids?
conjugates with gluuronic acid in the liver; duration 4-6 hours
the strongest opioid and standard of measure

weakest?
morphine

codiene
side effects of opioids?
1. sedation/euphoria
2. cough suppression
3. gastrointestinal muscle relaxtion
adverse reactions of opioids?
1. respiratory depression
2. nausea/emesis (vommitting)
3. constipation
4. myosis (dialated pupils)
5. urinary retention
6. stimulates histamine release
7. crosses placental barrier depresses fetal respiration
true or false; nausea is an allergic reaction
false
This brand name of Hydrocodone relieves moderate pain alone or with ASA or acetominophine
Lortab or Lorcet
opiod that relieves moderate to severe pain alone or in combo with ASA or acetominophine
Oxycodone
most common opioid; questionalble efficacy usually used in combo with ASA or acetominophines
Codeine
This brand name of Propoxyphene has a questionable efficacy and is usually used in combo with ASA or acetominophine
Darvon Darvocet
Commonly abused opioid by health professional 100mg = 10 g morphine
Meperidine
Opioid not used in dentistry; has a high abuse potential outlawed in mahy states
Hydromorphone
used for withdrawl of morphine
methadone
This brand of Naloxne competes with opioids for receptor sites; used for overdose reversal
Narcan
used in opioid free addicts to maintain opioid free state
Naltrexone