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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name catecholamines
Name noncatecholamines
alpha 1 agonists major clinical applications
- Nasal congestion, ophtalmic hyperemia - short acting nasal sprays or ophtalmic drops - phenylephrine or long acting oral - ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
Hemostasis - EPI
Restoring BP - phenylephrine and NE
Adjuncts to local anesthetics - EPI, phenylephrine
Mydriasis - alpha receptors on dilator (radial muscles) - phenylephrine - facilitates eye exam
Side effects for alpha 1 agonists
Necrosis following extravasation (IV)
Alpha 2 agonists major clinical applications
HYPERTENSION - clonidine
Decreases sympathetic outflow and increases vagal tone - decreases BP and HR
Side effects of alpha 2 agonists
- Sedation and xerostomia (dry mouth) in 50%
- Sexual dysfunction in males
- Dose related withdrawal syndrome - rebound hypertension
Beta 1 agonists major clinical applications
- Cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, heart failure, heart block - EPI, dobutamine, dopamine - increase cardiac output
Beta 1 agonists major side effects
- Tachycardia
- Arrhythmias
- Angina pectoris
Beta 2 agonists major clinical applications
- Asthma - BRONCHODILATION - EPI, isoproterenol, metaproterenol, albuterol, terbutaline
- Delay premature labor - terbutaline
Beta 2 agonists major side effects
Hyperglycemia in diabetics
Dopamine receptor activation
- Dilates renal blood vessels - D1 - used in treatment of shock - dopamine and fenoldopam
Name indirect acting sympathomimetics
Tyramine - red wine, aged cheese - massive release of NE
- Guanethidine - increase NE
- Cocaine - inhibits catecholamine uptake
- Tricyclic antidepressants - inhibit catecholamine and serotonin uptake
Name mixed sympathomimetics
- Amphetamine
- Metamphetamine
- Ephedrine
Name alpha blockers
Non selective - phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine - use for pheochromocytoma, prevent acute hypertensive episodes
Alpha 1 selective - prazosin - use in HTN and BPH
Major side effects in alpha 1 blockers
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Reflex tachycardia
Alpha 1 receptors control vascular resistance
Major side effect of blocking alpha 2 receptor
Intensification of reflex tachycardia - release of NE
Beta blockers
Cardiac beta 1 blockade
Used in hypertension, MI, angina, arrhythmias, glaucoma (TIMOLOL - decrease aqueous humor secretion)
Name non selective beta blockers
propranolol - both beta 1 and beta 2 blocker
Name selective beta 1 blocker
Name side effects of beta 1 blocking
- Bradycardia
- Decreased cardiac output
- AV block
- Can precipitate heart failure
- Sudden withdrawal can cause angina and SUDDEN DEATH
Name side effects of beta 2 blocking
- Brnchoconstriction - bad for asthmatics and COPD
- Blocks glycogenolysis - bad for diabetics
Name indirect acting blockers
- Drug affecting storage in vesicle - reserpine blocks VMAT, tyramine