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165 Cards in this Set

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Name the components of a drug profile?
names, classifications, mechanism of action, indications, pharmacokinetics, side effects, route of administration, contraindications, dosage, how supplied, special considerations
Assay
Test that determines the amount of purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory
Bioequivalence
Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs
Bioassay
Test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model
Teratogenic drug
Medication that may deform or kill the fetus
Free drug availability
Proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects
Pharmacokinetics
How drugs are transported into and out of the body
Pharmacodynamics
How a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects
Active transport
Requires the use of energy to move a substance
Carrier-mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane
Passive transport
Movement of a substance without the use of energy
Diffusion
movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis
Movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
Filtration
Movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area lower pressure
Ionize
To become electrically charged or polar
bioavailability
Amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue
Blood-brain barrier
Tight junction of the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass
Placental barrier
Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules
Metabolism
The body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals
Biotransformation
Special name given to the metabolism of drugs
Prodrug
Medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
First-pass effect
The liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation
Oxidation
The loss of hydrogen atoms of the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge (or lessens the negative charge) on the molecules
Hydrolysis
The breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a dydroxyl (OH`) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other
Enteral route
Delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract
Parenteral route
Delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues
Receptor
Specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
Affinity
Force of attraction between a drug and a receptor
Efficacy
A drug's ability to cause the expected response
Second messenger
Chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effects
Down-regulation
Binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease
Up-regulation
A drug causes the formation of more receptors than normal
Agonist
Drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
Antagonist
Drug that binds to a receptor, but does not cause it to initiate the expected response
Agonist-antagonist (partial agonist)
Drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others
Competitive antagonism
One drug that binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor
Noncompetitive antagonism
The binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding
Irreversible antagonism
A competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
Drug-response relationship
Correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response
Plasma-level profile
Describes the lengths of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels
Onset of action
The time from administration to until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration
Minimum effective concentration
Minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect
Duration of action
Length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration
Termination of action
Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body
Therapeutic index
Ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population to its effective dose for 50% of the population
Biologic half-life
Time the body takes to clear one half if a drug
Autonomic ganglia
Groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the central nervous system
Pre-ganglionic nerves
Nerve fibers that extend from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia
Post-ganglionic nerves
Nerve fibers that extend from the autonimic ganglia to the target tissue
Neuroeffector junction
Specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse
Cholinergic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Adrenergic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter nonepinephrine
Parasypathomimetic
Drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system (cholinergic)
Parasympatholytic
Drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system (anticholinergic
SLUDGE
Effects of cholinergic medications
Salvation,lacrimation,urination,defecation,gastric motility,emesis
Types of parasypathetic acetylcholine receptors
Muscarinic, nicotinic
Effects of atropine overdose
Hot as hell, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, mad as a hatter
Sympathomimetic
Drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system (adrenergic)
Sympatholytic
Drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system (antiadrenergic)
Alpha 1 response to stimulation and its location
constriction-arterioles,veins
mydriasis-eye
ejaculation-penis
Alpha 2
Presynaptic terminals inhibition. Inhibits release of nonepinephrine from presynaptic terninal
Beta 1 response to stimulation
and its location
increase heart rate, conductivity, automaticity, contractility-heart
renin release-kidney
Beta 2 response to stimulation and its location
bronchodilation-lungs
dilation-arterioles
inhibition contractions-uterus
tremors-skeletal muscle
Dopaminergic response to stimulation and its location
vasodilation-kidney
Catecholamine
Hormone, such as nonepinephrine and epinephrine,that strongly affects the sympathetic nervous and cardiovascular systems, metabolic rate, temperature, and smooth muscle
Common catecholamines
epinephrine,nonepinephrine, dopamine,isoproterenol,dobutamine
Phenylephrine- receptor
Alpha1
Norepinephrine
Alpha1,alpha2,beta1
Ephedrine
Alpha1,alpha2,beta1,beta2
Epinephrine
Alpha1,alpha2,beta1,beta2
Dobutamine
Beta1
Dopamine
Beta1,dopaminergic
Isoproterenol
Beta1,beta2
Terbutaline
Beta2
Name the 22 drugs an EMT-I either gives or needs to be familiar with
aspirin, adenocard, cordarone, atropine sulfate, proventil, xopenex, bronkosol, alupent, terbutaline, atrovent, D50W, valium, benadryl, epinephrine 1:1,000, epinephrine 1:10,000, lasix, glucagon, xylocaine, morphine sulfate, narcan, nitrostat, pitressin
ASPIRIN INDICATIONS
Chest pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia. Signs and symptoms of recent ischemic stroke
ASPIRIN CLASS
Analgesic. Inhibitor of platelet function. Anti-inflammatory
ASPIRIN ACTIONS
Blocks platelet aggregation
ASPIRIN CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pts with known hypersensitivity to drug
ASPIRIN PRECAUTIONS
GI bleeding and upset stomach
ASPIRIN SIDE EFFECTS
Hearburn;nausea and vomiting
ASPIRIN DOSAGE
160 mg or 325 mog by mouth (chewed)
ASPIRIN ONSET
5 to 30 minutes
ASPIRIN PEAK EFFECT
15 minutes to 2 hours
ASPIRIN ROUTE
Oral
ASPIRIN PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
NOT recommended
ADENOCARD CLASS
Antidysrhythmic
ADENOCARD ACTIONS
Slows atrioventricular conduction. Can interrupt reentrant pathways through the atrioventricular node. Slows sinoatrial node rate
ADENOCARD INDICATIONS
Symptomatic paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (including those caused by Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome)
ADENOCARD CONTRAINDICATIONS
Second-or third-degree heart block. Sick sinus syndrome. Known hypersensitivity to drug
ADENOCARD PRECAUTIONS
Arrhythmias, including blocks, are common at the time of cardioversion. Hypotension. Use caution in asthmatics
ADENOCARD SIDE EFFECTS
Facial flushing, headache, chest pain, SOB, dizziness, nausea, asystolic period following administration
ADENOCARD DOSAGE
6 mg given as a rapid IV bolus over a 1-2-second period; if, after 1 to 2 minutes, cardioversion does not occur, administer a 12 mg dose over 1 to 2 seconds. If unsuccessful, a third dose of 12 mg can be administered 1 to 2 minutes later
ADENOCARD ONSET
Within 20 to 30 seconds
ADENOCARD PEAK EFFECT
Within 20 to 30 seconds
ADENOCARD ROUTE
IV; Followed by flushing of the line
ADENOCARD PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
0.1 mg/kg rapid IV push followed by saline flush. May double (0.2 mg/kg), if second dose needed. Maximim first dose: 6 mg
Maximum second dose: 12 mg
Maximum single dose: 12mg
CORDARONE CLASS
Antidysrhythmic
CORDARONE ACTION
Prolongs the duration of the action potential and refractory period. Acts on all cardiac tissues.
Blocks sympathetic stimulation
CORDARONE INDICATIONS
Life-threatening ventricular and supraventricular dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT)
CORDARONE CONTRAINDICATION
Severe sinoatrial (SA) node dysfunction. Second- and third-degree AV block.
Hemodynamically significant bradycardia
CORDARONE PRECAUTIONS
Heart failure
CORDARONE SIDE EFFECTS
Nausea, hypotension, anorexia, malaise, fatigue, tremors, pulmonary toxicity, ventricular ectopic beats
CORDARONE DOSAGE
Cardiac arrest from VF and VT: 300 mg.
Recurrent VF or VT: 150 mg
Maximum Dose: 2.2 grams over 24 hours
CORDARONE ONSET
Immediate
CORDARONE PEAK EFFECT
30 to 45 minutes
CORDARONE ROUTE
IV
CORDARONE PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
5 mg/kg IV (maximum dose:15 mg/kg
ATROPINE SULFATE CLASS
Parasympatholytic (anticholinergic)
ATROPINE SULFATE ACTIONS
Blocks acetylcholine receptors. Increase heart rate. Decreases gastric secretions
ATROPINE SULFATE INDICATIONS
To increase heart rate and cardiac output in symptomatic bradycardia. Bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Antidote for organophosphate poisoning
ATROPINE SULFATE CONTRAINDICATIONS
None in the emergency setting
ATROPINE SULFATE PRECAUTIONS
Use with caution in patients with signs of myocardial ischemia
ATROPINE SULFATE SIDE EFFECTS
Palpitations, tachycardia, headache, dizziness, anxiety, dry mouth, pupillary dilation, blurred vision, urinary retention
ATROPINE SULFATE DOSAGE
Symptomatic bradycardia: 0.5 to 1.0 mg IVP (may repeat in 3 to 5 minutes to a maximum of 0.04 mg/kg)
Bradyasystolic arrest: 1.0 mg IVP (may repeat every 3 to 5 minutes to maximum of 0.04 mg/kg)
Organophosphate poisoning: 2 to 5 mg IV or IM every 10 to 15 minutes
ATROPINE SULFATE ONSET
30 to 90 seconds
ATROPINE SULFATE PEAK EFFECTS
20 to 60 minutes
ATROPINE SULFATE ROUTE
IV
ATROPINE SULFATE PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
0.02 mg/kg IV (minimum dose is 0.1 mg
PROVENTIL CLASS
Sympathomimetic bronchodilator
PROVENTIL ACTIONS
Selective beta2 adrenergic agonist that causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, thus decreasing airway resistance and increasing vital capacity
PRVENTIL INDICATIONS
Bronchospasm associated with reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
PROVENTIL CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pt's with known hypersensitivity to drug
PROVENTIL PRECAUTIONS
Use with cautionin pt's with cardiac ischemia. Try to measure peak flow before and after treatment
PROVENTIL SIDE EFFECTS
Tremors, anxiety, dizziness, headache, insomnia, nausea, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension
PROVENTIL DOSAGE
Metered-dose inhaler: 90 mcg (two sprays). Nebulizer: 2.5 mg in 2.5 to 3.0 mL normal saline. Repeat as needed
PROVENTIL ONSET
5 to 15 minutes
PROVENTIL PEAK EFFECTS
1 to 1.5 hours
PROVENTIL ROUTE
Inhalation
PROVENTIL PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
0.15 mg/kg in 2.5 to 3.0 mL normal saline via nebulizer. Repeat as needed
XOPENEX CLASS
Sympathomimetic bronchodilator
XOPENEX ACTIONS
Selective beta2 adrenergic agonist that causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle thus decreasing airway resistance and increasing vital capacity. Levalbuteral is a chemical variant of albuterol with greater affinity for the beta2 adrenergic receptors
XOPENEX INDICATIONS
Bonchospasm associated with reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
XOPENEX CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pt's with known hypersensitivity to drug
XOPENEX PRECAUTIONS
Use with caution in pt's with cardiac ischemia. Try to measure peak flow before and after treatment
XOPENEX SIDE EFFECTS
Tremors, anxiety, dizziness, headache, insomnia, nausea, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension
XOPENEX DOSAGE
Nebulizer: 0.63 mg in 3.0 mL normal saline every 6 to 8 hours
XOPENEX ONSET
5 to 15 minutes
XOPENEX PEAK EFFECT
1 to 1.5 hours
XOPENEX ROUTE
Inhalation
XOPENEX PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
<12 years: 0.31 mg in 3.0 mL normal saline threet imes a day
BRONKOSOL CLASS
Sympothomimetic bronchodilator
BRONKOSOL ACTIONS
Selective beta2 adrenergic agonist that causes relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscle, thus decreasing airway resistance and increasing vital capacity
BRONKOSOL INDICATIONS
Bonchospasm associated with reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
BRONKOSOL CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pt's with known hypersensitivity to drug
BRONKOSOL PRECAUTIONS
Use with caution in patients with caridac ischemia. Try to measure peak flow before and after treatment
BRONKOSOL SIDE EFFECTS
Tremors, anxiety, dizziness, headache, insomnia, nausea, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension
BRONKOSOL DOSAGE
Metered-dose inhaler: 1 to 2 inhalations. Nebulizer: 0.5 mL in 2 to 3 mL of normal saline. Repeat as needed
BRONKOSOL ONSET
Immediate
BRONKOSOL ONSET
Immediate
BRONKOSOL PEAK EFFECT
5 to 15 minutes
BRONKOSOL ROUTE
Inhalation
BRONKOSOL PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
0.01 mL/kg of 1% solution (maximum 0.5 mL) diluted in 2 to 3 mL normal saline
ALUPENT CLASS
Sympathomimetic bronchodilator
ALUPENT ACTIONS
Selective beta2 adrenergic agonist that causes relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscle, thus decreasing airway resistance and increasing vital capacity
ALUPENT INDICATIONS
Bronchospasm associated with reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
ALUPENT CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pt's with known hypersensitivity to drug
ALUPENT PRECAUTIONS
Use with caution in pt's with cardiac ischemia. Try to measure peak flow before and after treatment
ALUPENT SIDE EFFECTS
Tremors, anxiety, headache, dizziness, hypertension, tachycardia, insomnia, nausea, palpitations
ALUPENT DOSAGE
Metered-dose inhaler: 0.65 mg (2 sprays). Nebulizer: 0.2 to 0.3 mL in 2.5 to 3.0 mL normal saline
ALUPENT ONSET
1 minute
ALUPENT PEAK EFFECTS
1 hour
ALUPENT ROUTE
Inhalation
ALUPENT PEDIATRIC DOSAGE
0.1 to 0.2 mL/kg of 5% solution in 2.5 to 3.0 mL normal saline