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90 Cards in this Set

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Certain anemias are inherited because the synthesis of hemoglobin is genetically controlled. _____ anemia and ____ anemia are inherited disease in which the hemoblobin is abnormal and cannot efficiently carry oxygen. Inherited anemias are chronic illnesses and cannot be successfully treated or cured with drug replacement therapy.
Cooley's
sickle cell
Anemia may also be caused by deficiency in the amount of ____, occuring when the number of circulating red blood cells is decreased. Loss of blood (hemorrhage), increased destruction of RBCs (hemolysis), or decreased production of RBCs reduces the amount of circulating hemoglobin.
hemoglobin
The production of normal blood cells may be impaired when the bone marrow is poisoned by _____ such as benzene or anticancer drugs, deficient in the diet , or disease.
chemicals
Deficiency anemias are also classified according to the shape or ____, and color of the blood cells.
morphology
Too big cell
megaloblastic
too small cell
microcytic
about the right size cell
macrocytic
normal cell color
normochromic
less than normal color cell
hypochromic
The amount of iron in the body is maintained at a relatively constant level between _____ g.
2-5
Iron is primarily distributed in the ___ or stored in tissues such as the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Since the body excretes very little iron each day, iron stores are efficiently conserved. Iron deficiency occurs when the internal iron stores become depleted.
RBCs
Iron is primarily distributed in the ___ or stored in tissues such as the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Since the body excretes very little iron each day, iron stores are efficiently conserved. Iron deficiency occurs when the internal iron stores become depleted.
RBCs
To maintain an adequate iron balance, the National Academy of Sciences Research Council suggests that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for iron should be between ____ mg.
10-18
To maintain an adequate iron balance, the National Academy of Sciences Research Council suggests that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for iron should be between ____ mg.
10-18
Women are always predisposed to iron deficiency, primarily as a result of the constant loss of blood during each _____ period. Pregnancy and lactation also increase the iron requirements for women and may contribute to the development of iron deficiency.
menstrual
Chronic iron deficiency from any cause results in a _____ _____ anemia. The RBCs and hemoglobin are affected because iron is essential for normal oxygen transport. Oxygen molecules are carried by the iron, which is bound to hemoglobin. In chronic iron deficiency, the function of hemoglobin is severly impaired.
microcytic hypochromic
______ are medications that primarily contain iron compounds for the purpose of increasing hemoglobin production. available as OTC products in tablet, capsule, and liquid forms.
hematinics
Women are always predisposed to iron deficiency, primarily as a result of the constant loss of blood during each _____ period. Pregnancy and lactation also increase the iron requirements for women and may contribute to the development of iron deficiency.
menstrual
Chronic iron deficiency from any cause results in a _____ _____ anemia. The RBCs and hemoglobin are affected because iron is essential for normal oxygen transport. Oxygen molecules are carried by the iron, which is bound to hemoglobin. In chronic iron deficiency, the function of hemoglobin is severly impaired.
microcytic hypochromic
______ are medications that primarily contain iron compounds for the purpose of increasing hemoglobin production. available as OTC products in tablet, capsule, and liquid forms.
hematinics
Iron is primarily distributed in the ___ or stored in tissues such as the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Since the body excretes very little iron each day, iron stores are efficiently conserved. Iron deficiency occurs when the internal iron stores become depleted.
RBCs
To maintain an adequate iron balance, the National Academy of Sciences Research Council suggests that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for iron should be between ____ mg.
10-18
Women are always predisposed to iron deficiency, primarily as a result of the constant loss of blood during each _____ period. Pregnancy and lactation also increase the iron requirements for women and may contribute to the development of iron deficiency.
menstrual
Chronic iron deficiency from any cause results in a _____ _____ anemia. The RBCs and hemoglobin are affected because iron is essential for normal oxygen transport. Oxygen molecules are carried by the iron, which is bound to hemoglobin. In chronic iron deficiency, the function of hemoglobin is severly impaired.
microcytic hypochromic
______ are medications that primarily contain iron compounds for the purpose of increasing hemoglobin production. available as OTC products in tablet, capsule, and liquid forms.
hematinics
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
Occasionally, iron deficiency is caused by an inability to take oral medications or to absorb iron (malabsorption). In these situations, iron ____ (InFeD) may be administered intramuscularly or intravenously, by Z track method. The manufacturer's suggested dose is based upon the patient's weight and hemoglobin value. causes anaphylactic type reactions.
dextran
The most frequently associated side effects with oral _____ are gastric irritation, nausea, and constipation. Supplements are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to optimize absorption.
hematinics
Liquid iron preparations are recommended to be taken with juice or water to avoid ____ the teeth.
staining
In therapeutic doses, uabsorbed iron is excreted into the feces, causing stools to become ____ and ____.
black, tarry
Hematinics:
In toxi doses, iron erodes the stomach linin, causing pain, bleeding and vomitting. In severe cases, acidosis, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse occur. Treatment of acute iron toxicity includes gastric lavage with ______ which binds or chelates the iron so that none can be absorbed.
deferoxamine mesylate
Coffee, tea, milk, and eggs decrease the absorption of dietary _____.
iron
_________ (vitamin b 12) is available in dietary products such as meats, eggs, milk, seafood, and mother's milk (infants).
cyanocobalamin
Deficiency of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in adults due to a decreased dietary intake is difficult to produce. Cyanocobalamin is so efficiently stored in the liver that depletion of internal reserves usually takes ______ years.
6-10
Deficiency of this vitamin (cyanocobalamin) usually occurs when the absoprtion process is interrupted by lack of ability to synthesize ______ factor, disease, surgery, or infection. The stomach secretes a protein known as intrinsic factor, which carries cyanocobalamin to the ileium, where ti is absorbed. Therefore, the intestinal absorption of cyanocobalamin is dependent uponn the presence of intrinsic factor.
intrinsic
Some individuals lack the ability to synthesize intrinsic factor. As a result, these people are cyanocobalamin deficient and develop _____ anemia.
pernicious
Cyanocobalamin absorption may also be decreased when there is a chronic overgrowth in intestinal bacteria or _____, and the bacteria or parasites utilize the vitamin before intestinal absoption can occur.
tapeworm
Cyanocobalamin is available in tablets and injectable solution.
no answer
__________ (alpha-Redisol, Hydrobexan) is an injectable vitamin preparation that is longer-acting than cyanocobalamin because it is highly bound to proteins. It has no significant advantage over cycnocobalamin in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
Hydroxycyanocobalamin
Chronic heavy _____ intake (for more than 2 weeks) may produce malabsorption of cyanocobalamin.
alcohol
The RDA for _____ ____ can be satisfied by including green leafy vegetables and meat in the diet.
folic acid
A dietary ____ of folic acid frequently occurs because people do not adequately supplement their diet with vegetables. In addition, even well-balanced diets become folate deficient because the heat required for canning and cooking destroys folic acid
deficiency
_____ is essential for cell growth and reproduction because it is necessary for protein synthesis. It is utilized in the synthesis of thymidine, an essential element in the nucleoprotein DNA. Also, synthesis of amino acids requires an active form of this known as FH.
Folic Acid
Folic acid and cyanocobalamin deficiencies produce identical ____.
anemiasolic
Folic acid is approved for use in ______ anemia due to folate deficiency.
megoblastic
Folic acid is designated Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy Category ___ because of its critical role in fetal development. Folate status in pregnancy is directly related to proper neural development. Folate deficiency increases the potential for neural tube deficit.
A
Folic acid should never be given for treatment of _________ deficiency anemia. Administration of folic acid with this will reverse the production of megoblastic cells.
cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)
Folic acid is not effective in the treatment of ____ and normocytic anemias.
aplastic
Drug interactions with folic acid may result in decreased absorption of folate or decreased productiion of FH4. ____ such as phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), barbituates, and oral contraceptives interfere with the intestinal absorption of folic acid by an unknown mechanism. This decrease in folic acid absorption infrequently results in clinically significant megaloblastic anemia.
anticonvulsants
Certain drugs, such as methotrexate (antineoplastic), tremethoprim (septra), and pyrimethamine (antimalarial) block the formation of FH4 because they inhibit the enzymes that convert _______ to tetrahydrofolic acid.
folic acid
________ is a protein normally produced by the kidneys that participates in red blood cells homeostasis. Responding to changes in tissue oxygenation, it stimulates production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. This provides more vehicles to transport oxygen to the tissues, thus improving oxygenation.
Erythropoietin
Erythropoietin (Epogen, Procrit) is approved for use in chronic renal failure, _______ ______, or in dialysis patients where the hematocrit and hemoglobin confirm an anemic condition exists.
cancer chemotherapy
________ related anemia in HIV patients is another indication fo erythropoietin. IN such cases the anemia represents a threat to patient health and or obligates frequent transfusions to maintain adequate hematocrit and hemoglobin.
Zidovudine
Preparations of erythropoietin cannot be frozen or vigorously shaken because the mechanical action will denature the _____. In genereal, erythropoietin should not be added to any other drug solution; however, benzyl alcohol 0.9 percent may be added to minimize the discomfort of injection and act as a bacteriostatic.
glycoprotein.
In genereal, erythropoietin should not be added to any other drug solution; however, benzyl alcohol 0.9 percent may be added to minimize the discomfort of injection and act as a ___________.
bacteriostatic
Erythropoietin can cause headache, arthralgia, nausea, hypertension, and diarrhea, skin rashes and seizures also occur.
no answer